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1. Kinetic energy (we use the classical formula since
v
is much less than
c
) is converted
into potential energy (see Eq. 24-43). From Appendix F or G, we find
Z
= 3 for Lithium
and
Z
= 90 for Thorium; the charges on those nuclei are therefore 3
e
and 90
e
,
respectively. We manipulate the terms so that one of the factors of
e
cancels the “e” in the
kinetic energy unit MeV, and the other factor of

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