Solutions Chapter 15 2009

Solutions Chapter 15 2009 - CHAPTER 15 ACIDS AND BASES 15.3...

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CHAPTER 15 ACIDS AND BASES 15.3 Table 15.2 of the text contains a list of important Brønsted acids and bases. (a) both (why?), (b) base, (c) acid, (d) base, (e) acid, (f) base, (g) base, (h) base, (i) acid, (j) acid. 15.4 Recall that the conjugate base of a Brønsted acid is the species that remains when one proton has been removed from the acid. (a) nitrite ion: NO 2 (b) hydrogen sulfate ion (also called bisulfate ion): HSO 4 (c) hydrogen sulfide ion (also called bisulfide ion): HS (d) cyanide ion: CN (e) formate ion: HCOO 15.5 In general the components of the conjugate acid base pair are on opposite sides of the reaction arrow. The base always has one fewer proton than the acid. (a) The conjugate acid base pairs are (1) HCN (acid) and CN (base) and (2) CH 3 COO (base) and CH 3 COOH (acid). (b) (1) HCO 3 (acid) and CO 3 2 (base) and (2) HCO 3 (base) and H 2 CO 3 (acid). (c) (1) H 2 PO 4 (acid) and HPO 4 2 (base) and (2) NH 3 (base) and NH 4 + (acid). (d) (1) HClO (acid) and ClO (base) and (2) CH 3 NH 2 (base) and CH 3 NH 3 + (acid). (e) (1) H 2 O (acid) and OH (base) and (2) CO 3 2 (base) and HCO 3 (acid). 15.6 The conjugate acid of any base is just the base with a proton added. (a) H 2 S (b) H 2 CO 3 (c) HCO 3 (d) H 3 PO 4 (e) H 2 PO 4 (f) HPO 4 2 (g) H 2 SO 4 (h) HSO 4 (i) HSO 3 15.7 (a) The Lewis structures are C C O O O H and O - C C O O O - O - (b) H + and C 2 H 2 O 4 can act only as acids, C 2 HO 4 can act as both an acid and a base, and C 2 O 4 2 can act only as a base. 15.8 The conjugate base of any acid is simply the acid minus one proton. (a) CH 2 ClCOO (b) IO 4 (c) H 2 PO 4 (d) HPO 4 2 (e) PO 4 3 (f) HSO 4 (g) SO 4 2 (h) IO 3 (i) SO 3 2 (j) NH 3 (k) HS (l) S 2 (m) OCl
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CHAPTER 15: ACIDS AND BASES 417 15.15 [H + ] = 1.4 × 10 3 M 14 w 3 1.0 10 [H ] 1.4 10 +− × == = × × 12 [OH ] 7.1 10 K M 15.16 [OH ] = 0.62 M 14 w 1.0 10 0.62 [OH ] × = 14 [H ] 1.6 10 K × M 15.17 (a) HCl is a strong acid, so the concentration of hydrogen ion is also 0.0010 M . (What is the concentration of chloride ion?) We use the definition of pH. pH = log[H + ] = log(0.0010) = 3.00 (b) KOH is an ionic compound and completely dissociates into ions. We first find the concentration of hydrogen ion. 14 14 w 1.0 10 [H ] 1.3 10 0.76 [OH ] × = × K M The pH is then found from its defining equation pH = log[H + ] = log[1.3 × 10 14 ] = 13.89 15.18 (a) Ba(OH) 2 is ionic and fully ionized in water. The concentration of the hydroxide ion is 5.6 × 10 4 M (Why? What is the concentration of Ba 2 + ?) We find the hydrogen ion concentration. 14 11 w 4 1.0 10 [H ] 1.8 10 [OH ] 5.6 10 −− × = × × K M The pH is then: pH = log[H + ] = log(1.8 × 10 11 ) = 10.74 (b) Nitric acid is a strong acid, so the concentration of hydrogen ion is also 5.2 × 10 4 M . The pH is: pH = log[H + ] = log(5.2 × 10 4 ) = 3.28 15.19 Since pH = log[H + ], we write [H + ] = 10 pH (a) [H + ] = 10 2.42 = 3.8 × 10 3 M (c) [H + ] = 10 6.96 = 1.1 × 10 7 M (b) [H + ] = 10 11.21 = 6.2 × 10 12 M (d) [H + ] = 10 15.00 = 1.0 × 10 15 M 15.20 Strategy: Here we are given the pH of a solution and asked to calculate [H + ]. Because pH is defined as pH = log[H + ], we can solve for [H + ] by taking the antilog of the pH; that is, [H + ] = 10 pH .
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This note was uploaded on 05/18/2011 for the course CHM 2046 taught by Professor Veige/martin during the Spring '07 term at University of Florida.

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Solutions Chapter 15 2009 - CHAPTER 15 ACIDS AND BASES 15.3...

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