105_03-minerals_part_1 - Minerals The Building Blocks of...

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Unformatted text preview: Minerals The Building Blocks of Rocks Atoms & Elements – Matter: anything that has mass and occupies space Matter: – Elements: cannot be split into substances of different composition composition – Atoms: smallest particle of an element that still Atoms: retains the properties of the element. – Atoms consist of protons protons neutrons neutrons electrons electrons Chapter 3 Atoms & Elements Protons: Protons: – positive charge, contribute mass, located in the nucleus Elements Elements Elements are specific atoms atomic defined by the atomic number (# of protons) – Neutrons, electrons don’t matter Neutrons: Neutrons: – No charge, contribute mass, located in the nucleus Electrons: Electrons: – negative charge, very little mass, orbit the nucleus in various energy levels, or shells Isotopes Same Same # protons, different # neutrons – (have different atomic mass numbers) numbers) – Atomic mass # = # protons + # neutrons Most Most are stable Some Some are unstable = radioactive Elements are arranged by increasing number of protons in the periodic table of the elements 1 Bonding and Compounds Compounds: Compounds: formed by the bonding of atoms bonding of two or more elements. Bonding and Compounds How and why does matter stick together? Salt Quartz Oxygen – O2 element Carbon dioxide – Co2 compound Structure of Atoms Electrons Electrons hang out in shells (different energy levels) around nucleus Electrons Electrons like traveling in pairs Only Only a limited number of electrons are allowed in one shell (2, 8, 8) Completely Completely filled outer shell is a stable and happy atom (noble gases) Bonding and Compounds Two important types of bonds in mineral formation: - Ionic - Covalent Other bonds exist- metallic, van der Waals. exist- Bonding and Compounds - -+ Bonding and Compounds + Ionic Bonding 2 Bonding and Compounds Covalent Covalent bonding – electrons shared between two atoms so that both can “pretend” to possess them – Usually very stable and strong bond Bonding and Compounds Covalent Covalent bonding: diamond – Strong bond - hard material Bonding and Compounds Metallic bonding: electrons Metallic bonding: electrons move freely from one atom to another. occurs in metals. accounts for metallic luster, electrical & thermal conductivity, and malleability. Bonding and Compounds Van Van der Waals bonding: weak attractive force bonding: weak between atoms that have no electrons available for bonding. Graphite – covalent bonds and Van der Waals bonds Diamond and graphite are forms of carbon with different bonding. Diamond = covalent Graphite = covalent & van der Waals What are Minerals? ? 3 What are Minerals? Minerals Economically Economically important Gypsum Bentonite Kaolinite Elements Elements are not minerals! Minerals Valuable Valuable as gemstones Cool! Cool! Minerals Gypsum Crystals Giant Crystal Cave, Mexico Minerals Cool! Cool! What’s a rock? Aggregates Aggregates of one or more minerals, where each mineral retains its discrete characteristics 4 What are Minerals? Solid Solid Inorganic Inorganic (debatable?) Naturally Naturally occurring Crystalline Crystalline = arranged atoms Specific Specific chemical composition Characteristic Characteristic physical properties Minerals Crystal vs crystalline Minerals Crystal vs crystalline Minerals Crystal vs crystalline Minerals Crystal vs crystalline Minerals Crystal vs crystalline 5 Minerals Crystal vs crystalline Minerals Crystal vs crystalline Unorderly substances Mineraloid Same - but different: no systematic internal arrangement of atoms! Amorphous Example: Opal Amorphous substance 6 ...
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