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Cementation sedimentary rocks sediment sediment loose

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Unformatted text preview: (compaction, cementation) Sedimentary Rocks Sediment Sediment – Loose, solid particles Physical Physical and chemical products of weathering Sedimentary Sedimentary rock – Formed when sediment is lithified – Thin layer, barely 5% of the Earth’s crust – 75% of exposed rocks on Earth Sediment Size Sediment Transport Grain Grain size – Wind ⇒ fine grained (silt) – Ice ⇒ all sizes – Water ⇒ all sizes Particle Pebble Sand Silt Clay Size 2 - 64 mm Loose Sediment Gravel Sand Silt Clay Consolidated Rock Conglomerate or Breccia Sandstone Siltstone Claystone, Claystone, mudstone, and and shale 0.063 - 2 mm 0.004- 0.063 mm 0.004<0.004 mm Wind deposit Ice deposit Sediment Transport Driven Driven by pull of gravity – Water – Wind – Ice Sediment Transport 10 10 billion tons of detrital sediment is deposited into the world’s oceans annually 4 Sediment Transport Sediment Transport Grain Shape Abrasion and rounding angular SubSub-rounded Sediment Transport Grain Shape SubSub-rounded Limestone: 11 km Granite: 8585-335 km Rounded Sediment Transport Sorting Grains separated by size, shape, or density Wind: Wind: least viscous, well sorted sand Water: Water: intermediate viscosity, transports gravel Ice: Ice: high viscosity, typically poorly sorted Ice Wind Sediment deposition Sediment Sediment can be carried a considerable distance from its source, eventually eventually coming to rest in in a depositional environment – Continental – Transitional – Marine Lithification of S...
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