2010SPfinalstudyguide - Chapter 1: Introduction Earth is...

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- Earth is dynamic; constantly evolving - Systems/subsytems - How does geology affect us? How do we affect the Earth? - Geology : Physical vs. Historical; specialties - Scientific method and the formation of theories - Origin of Universe/solar system - Earth’s layers - Important geological concepts: Plate tectonics, The rock cycle, Evolution, Geologic time, Absolute dating, Uniformitarianism Chapter 2: Plate Tectonics - Dominant process affecting the Earth, explains locations of geologic features/processes - Alfred Wegener –continental drift. Evidence: continental fit, rock sequences, mountain ranges, paleoclimate,fossils Hypothesis rejected- no mechanism - Paleomagnetism/Earth’s magnetic field Recording in rock record, periodic reversals, polar wandering curves, stripes on sea floor, seafloor spreading - Plate Tectonics Theory = Continental drift + Geomagnatism + Seafloor spreading - 3 types of plate boundaries Divergent: plates moving apart from one another; creation of new crust; rifting process Convergent: plates moving towards one another; subduction; destruction of crust Ocean-ocean convergence: oceanic trench, island arc (Japan) Continent-ocean convergence: oceanic trench, volcanic arc (Andes/Cascades) Continent-continent convergence: intense deformation, mountain building (Himalayas) Transform: plates slide past one another; no creation or destruction of crust (San Andreas) - Determining direction and speed of plates - Lithosphere/Asthenosphere/Convection Chapter 3: Minerals - Matter: Elements/atoms Atoms- protons, neutrons, electrons Atomic number/Atomic mass number Isotopes - Bonding: ionic, covalent, metallic, van der waals - Mineral vs. rock (definitions) - Mineral Groups: Silicates: most common mineral. Silica tetrahedra- forms chains, sheets Carbonates/Oxides/Sulfides/Sulfates/Halides - Physical properties of minerals. Color, luster, crystal form, cleavage, fracture hardness, streak, etc. Chapter 4: Igneous Rocks - Magma vs. lava - Plutonic/Intrusive/Phaneritic vs. Volcanic/Extrusive/Aphanitic - Composition of a magma/lava/igneous rock based on amount of silica: Ultramafic, Mafic, Intermediate, Felsic - Viscosity, relation to heat, composition, gases - Melting: Heat, pressure, water Bowen’s Reaction Series- order in which minerals crystallize as magma cools/order of melting as temperature rises Melting at divergent boundaries/convergent boundaries - Crystal settling/assimilation/mixing of magmas - Igneous rock names – based on texture (grain size) and composition (amount of silica) - Igneous textures (size/shape/arrangement of grains) Glassy, Aphanitic, Phaneritic, Pegmatitic, Porphyritic, Vesicular - Characteristics of mafic vs felsic rocks: amount of silica, dark vs. light - Igneous rock types: Ultramafic- intrusive = Peridotite Mafic- intrusive = Gabbro extrusive = Basalt Intermediate- intrusive = Diorite extrusive = Andesite Felsic- intrusive = Granite extrusive = Rhyolite - Intrusive igneous structures:
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2010SPfinalstudyguide - Chapter 1: Introduction Earth is...

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