Chapter_4-08 - CHAPTER 4 GENERAL FEATURES OF CELLS Cell...

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1 1 Cell theory 1. All living things are composed of one or more cells 2. Cells are the smallest units of living organisms 3. New cells come only from pre-existing cells by cell division CHAPTER 4 GENERAL FEATURES OF CELLS 2 Microscopy s Magnification b Ratio between the size of an image produced by a microscope and its actual size s Resolution b Ability to observe two adjacent objects as distinct from one another s Contrast b Can be enhanced using dyes
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2 3 s Light microscope b Uses light for illumination b Resolution 0.2 μm s Electron microscope b Uses an electron beam b Resolution 2 nm 4
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3 5 6 Electron microscopes s Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) b Thin slices stained with heavy metals b Some electrons are scattered while others pass through to form an image s Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) b Sample coated with heavy metal b Beam scans surface to make 3D image
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4 7 8 Prokaryotic cells s Simple cell structure s Lack a membrane-enclosed nucleus s 2 categories- bacteria and archaea b Both small b Bacteria- abundant, most not harmful b Archaea- less common, often found in extreme environments
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5 9 Typical bacterial cell s Plasma membrane- barrier s Cytoplasm- contained inside plasma membrane s Nucleoid- region where genetic material found s Ribosomes- involved in protein synthesis 10 s Many structures are located outside the plasma membrane b Cell wall- support and protection b Glycocalyx- traps water, protection b Appendages- pilli (attachment), flagella (locomotion)
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6 11 12 Eukaryotic cells s DNA housed inside nucleus s Eukaryotic cells exhibit compartmentalization s Organelle- subcellular structure or membrane-bounded compartment with its own unique structure and function s Shape, size, and organization of cells vary considerably among different species and even among different cell types of the same species
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7 13 14
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8 15 The Proteome Determines the Characteristics of a Cell s How does a single organism produce different types of cells? s
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This note was uploaded on 05/18/2011 for the course BIOL 110 taught by Professor N/a during the Fall '08 term at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Chapter_4-08 - CHAPTER 4 GENERAL FEATURES OF CELLS Cell...

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