1 Introduction BOR 2010

1 Introduction BOR 2010 - Biology of Reproduction Biology...

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Unformatted text preview: Biology of Reproduction Biology Spring 2010 Louis Guillette Instructors Office: 528 Bartram Hall Office Hours: Tuesday period 4 (10:40-11:25) Phone: 392-1098; Email: ljg@ufl.edu http://people.biology.ufl.edu/ljg/Courses/index.htm Ashley Boggs Office 521 Bartram Hall Office Hours: Thursday period 4 (10:40- 11:25) Email: boogsta@ufl.edu Guillette laboratory Guillette • 25th year at UF • Research focus on reproductive biology – Molecular to organismal physiology/endocrinology • Teaching: general biology - graduate studies TA: Ashley Boggs • PhD candidate in SNRE • Effects on heavy metals and PCBs on thyroid hormone and development of the reproductive system – Research based out of NASA’s Kennedy Space Cnt Laboratory Projects • Evolution of the Reproductive System – Environmental sex determination – Maternal-fetal communication – Genitalia development • Endocrine Disruption & Birth Defects – Phallic abnormalities – Ovarian follicle defects • FSH/Inhibin/activin abnormalities • Hypothyroidism • Endangered Species Reproduction The World of Reproductive Biology Molecular Laboratory-based Studies Biosphere Field-based Studies Field-based Studies seconds eons Cellular minutes Ecosystem centuries Tissue hours Community decades Organ Organism years Population Lab or Field-based Studies Thanks to John Moran and Rex Hess for use of photos presented here. Guillette - UF Evolution: Darwin’s main ideas Evolution: 1) Natural selection is "differential success in reproduction" a) Unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce Reproduction Reproduction • central to biology and evolution – "differential reproduction" • involves production, growth and differentiation of new individuals • interdisciplinary in scope Evolution: Darwin’s main ideas Evolution: 2) interaction between the environment and the variability inherent among individuals making up a population Genes AND Environment AND Phytoestrogen: genistein Evolution: Darwin’s main ideas Evolution: 3) adaptation of populations of organisms to their environment insecticide resistance in insects insecticide Insects with chromosome for resistance differentially reproduce Figure 22.12 Evolution of insecticide resistance in insect populations Model Systems Model • 90% of the recent research in mammals is focused on 10 species • these 'models' have "pointed the way" but do not clearly represent the diversity present • 0.02% of present day vertebrate species! Terms You Should Know Terms • PLESIOMORPHIC - primitive • APOMORPHIC – derived • HOMOLOGY- characters share similar design and common evolutionary origin • ANALOGY - independent evolutionary ANALOGY independent origin of structures that have similar form or function Homology Homology • characters share similar design and common evolutionary origin – bird wing and mammal limb – sexual homologies - mammalian external genitalia Figure 22.14 Homologous structures: anatomical signs of descent with modification Analogy Analogy • Independent evolutionary origin of structures that have similar form or function – wings of birds and bees – convergent evolution Figure 22.15 Different geographic regions, different mammalian “brands” Figure 13.8 A comparison of mitosis and meiosis Figure 13.8 A comparison of mitosis and meiosis Mitosis and Meiosis Mitosis • Mitosis – 2 daughter cells/division – Equal chromosomal separation - diploid separation diploid daughter cells – Daughter cells identical to parent cell Figure 13.8 A comparison of mitosis and meiosis Figure 13.8 A comparison of mitosis Mitosis and Meiosis Mitosis • Meiosis – Male 4 cells/division – Female 1 cell/division – – Unequal division - haploid daughter cells Unequal haploid Daughter cells can be different from parent cell • 2 polar bodies Figure 13.1 The asexual reproduction of a hydra Asexual Reproduction parent • all genes from one parent • fission - a separation of a parent into two or more individuals of about equal size (mitosis) • budding - new individuals split off parent bud Crown of Thorns Starfish Sexual Reproduction Sexual Figure 13.4 The human life cycle • genes from two parent • fusion of haploid gametes = diploid zygote • male gamete = sperm – usually smaller than oocyte • female gamete = ovum – egg/oocyte – usually larger than sperm • gamete also called germ cell • requires shedding of eggs and sperm • usually in moist environment – prevent egg desiccation – allow sperm transport External Fertilization External • environmental factors can initiate release Figure 46.4 The release of eggs and external fertilization – temperature, rainfall, salinity, lunar cycle, pheromones, behavior Internal Fertilization Internal • cooperative mating • behavior important – courtship – mate choice Sex Ratio Sex • Primary - male:female at fertilization male:female – only those with genetic basis for sex determination • Secondary - at end of parental/incubation period • Tertiary - male: female adults in population ...
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