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5a. Female Anatomy 2010 - Female Female Reproductive...

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Unformatted text preview: Female Female Reproductive Anatomy Vertebrate Tree Tetrapod Tree Ovary - Primary Organ Ovary - Gross anatomy – usually paired – may be solid or hollow – size can vary greatly depending on species and stage of reproductive activity Gross Anatomy - Mammal Paired, solid Size changes little with reproductive activity – 'Blisters on the surface' Human Cow Gross Anatomy - Reptile Paired, solid ovary Enlarged dramatically with reproductive activity Immature 1 cm 20 cm Mature Alligator Gross Anatomy - Fish Elasmobranchs – Paired but fused midline Perch Teleosts – Paired - can be fused completely or in part Shark Eutherian Mammals Eutherian Mammals Ovarian Histology Serosa – outer covering of tough connective tissue germinal epithelium – single layer of cells once thought to produce the germ cells - thus its name ovarian stroma or cortex – contains follicles and scar tissue, some blood vessels ovarian hylus or medulla – contains blood vessels, nerves, lymph Ovarian Follicle ZP TI & TE follicle - composite structure that will produce mature oocyte oocyte – primordial follicle - germ cell (oocyte) with a single layer of mesodermal cells around cells it – as development of follicle progresses, oocyte will will obtain a ‘halo’ of cells and obtain membranes that are distinct: Oocyte 1. zona pellucide (ZP) (ZP) 2. granulosa (Gr) 3. theca interna and and externa (TI & TE) externa (TI Gr Human Ovary Corpora Lutea (CL) remnant of ovulated follicle – following ovulation theca and granulosa cells remain in and granulosa ovary – these cells luteinize and these luteinize produce progesterone – will remain ‘active’ for a will species specific period of time and then undergo luteolysis - luteal death f cl cl f Atresia Atresia Atretic follicles - follicles undergoing Atretic follicles death = atresia death atresia Human Ovary Human at 5 months in utero - ovary has at ovary >3,500,000 germ cells – they then begin to die - atresia atresia at birth each ovary has 400,000 germ cells – all she will have for rest of life at puberty = 83,000/ovary at 35 yrs = 30,000 follicles yrs Oogonial Nests Nests Oogonial Nests Oogonial Nests – Adults of some species retain clumps of oogonia that some that undergo mitosis to generate new follicles. Not found in mammals or birds Fish (Teleost) Ovary - Histology P. gracilis • Hollow, fused • Ovulation toward the central cavity I. whitei Fish Ovary - Germinal Epithelium • Germ cells (oogonia) lie below surface of ovarian epithelium I. whitei Fish Follicles at various stages Images from Dra. Mari Carmen Uribe - UNAM What is this? I whitei Ovary of viviparous fish with developing embryos in it! Summary - Ovary • Chondrichthyes- - paired, fused, solid • Osteichthyes • Amphibians - paired, separate, solid • Reptiles - paired, separate, solid (some ribbon) • Birds - paired, separate, solid • Mammals - paired, separate, solid – Teleosts - paired, fused or not, hollow – Holostean - paired, separate, solid Duct system Duct all derived from the embryonic Müllerian duct Müllerian duct whole duct is termed oviduct in whole oviduct comparative biology – in mammals - oviduct usually refers to Fallopian tube Female Tubular Structures Mammalian Fallopian tube after Fallopius three regions – infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus (& intramural region) infundibulum - top thin walled region that receives the egg – opening is ostium – finger-like projections are fimbria ampulla - ciliated for sperm and ova transport – region where egg is fertilized in many species – egg ‘white’ or albumen is secreted isthmus - junction with uterus – usually aglandular – Intramural region - region thru wall of uterus (mammals) Fallopian Tube thin walled muscular tube three layers – Serosa - outer connective tissue covering outer – Myometrium - thin layers of smooth muscle thin Inner layer - circular Outer layer - longitudinal – Endometrium - layer(s) of epithelial cells layer(s) Can be 'thrown into folds' Mammalian Fallopian tube anatomy Mammalian Tube - Isthmus myometrium inner layer outer layer endometrium Reptilian Tube - Isthmus Lamina propria Lamina propria (glandular) Epithelium Myometrium endometrium Uterus thick walled muscular tube three layers – serosa, myometrium, endometrium myometrium endometrium region for egg / embryo development in viviparous species egg shell protein and calcium secreted in oviparous species structure and shape variable depending on species and stage of reproductive activity Human Uterine Anatomy Human Mammalian Uteri A = Monotreme (Echidna) (Echidna) B = Marsupial (Opossum) Marsupial C = Marsupial (Kangaroo) Marsupial D = Eutherian (Rat) (Rat) E = Eutherian (Cat) (Cat) F = Eutherian (Pig) (Pig) G = Eutherian (Woman) (Woman) Comparative Duct Systems Derived from Müllerian duct llerian duct May have one or two ‘horns’ May – Most birds have one Functions – Sperm transport – Egg shell/jelly production – Growth factor synthesis Alligator Uterus - Isthmus Fiber Region Lamina propria Lamina propria (glandular) Calcium Region Epithelium endometrium endometrium Cervix Highly muscular walls Barrier to sperm Functions to retain egg in uterus Vagina/Cloaca communicates receives in with outside and connects uterus via cervix sperm in internal fertilizers some - connects to cloaca common vestibule for urinary, digestive and reproductive systems Vagina Vagina Thick muscular walls Sperm transport and selection Embryologically from two Embryologically from origins – Müllerian duct Müllerian duct – External genitalia Cloaca Common region into which the vagina and intestine open Latin for 'sewer' Common in birds, reptiles ...
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