19. Lactation 2010

19. Lactation 2010 - Postpartum Nutrient Provision...

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Postpartum Nutrient Provision
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Postpartum Nutrient Provision • Support young until they can obtain their own food • Maximizes survival • Speeds postpartum development • Critical in migratory species
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Crop Milk • Some birds – pigeons • Crop sac/gland – produce crop milk under stimulation of prolactin – prolactin released due to brood patch tactile stimulation – prolactin stimulates crop and inhibits ovulation
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Mammary Glands • Milk production by process called lactation • Mammary gland evolved from sweat glands
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Hypothesis • Mammal-like reptiles (therapsids) – incubated eggs with brood patch or pouch. – Moist patch conducive to optimal growth and survival. • Secretions of salt, proteins and fat – serve as a nutrient source – maximize growth and survival. • Localized sweat glands would enlarge for increased synthesis.
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Monotremes • Numerous small milk-secreting glands – open onto two ventrolateral areas of bare skin MILK FIELDS or AREOLAE • Platypus – female lies on back - milk is released onto skin – sucked up by young using mammary hairs • Echidna – milk fields in fold of skin - marsupium – mechanism similar to that in platypus
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Mammary Organization echidna marsupial human ungulate cow
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19. Lactation 2010 - Postpartum Nutrient Provision...

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