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Lecture LevelingTheoryandErrors

# Lecture LevelingTheoryandErrors - Lecture Leveling...

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Lecture Leveling Equipment and Errors Lecture Notes Text Coverage: Wolf and Ghilani 4: 1-4.5.3, 6-15 Problems: 4: 7-14, 20-27 This lecture introduces the subject of “leveling” and the error sources. Leveling Methods 1. Differential Leveling 2. Trigonometric Leveling 3. GPS Height Determination 4. Barometric Leveling Differential Leveling Equipment Levels: 1. Spirit Levels: wye, dumpy, tilting dumpy. 2. Pendulum Levels: automatic levels 3. Digital Levels Rods: 1. Philadelphia rod 2. Precise level rod 3. Bar code rod Levels have three “hairs”, “threads” or “wires”: the main crosshair, plus two stadia hairs. The distance d from instrument to rod is measured by stadia: d = 100 * i, where i is the stadia intercept from top to bottom. Change in Elevation: E AB = Elev B – Elev A = change in elevation from A to B. ( + if B is higher) Single setup: Elev B = Elev A + BS reading – FS reading therefore E AB = BS reading – FS reading = B A N N - Systematic Errors in Leveling: 1.

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Lecture LevelingTheoryandErrors - Lecture Leveling...

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