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Lecture-Theory of Meas Errors

Lecture-Theory of Meas Errors - Lecture Theory of Repeated...

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Lecture: Theory of Repeated Measurements Outline: A. Repeated measurements of the same quantity vary. Therefore, when only one measurement is taken, it is not to be taken as exactly true, and the measurer must always be able to establish the level of significance of a measurement, by constantly estimating the measurement’s uncertainty. B. Three types of measurement errors. 1. Blunders (mistakes) are large errors made by mistake, misreading the instrument, miscounting the number of times a scale has been laid down. Transposing two numbers – a reading of 25 becomes 52 in the notes. (See Rule of Nines explained in lecture) Blunders of measurement are detected by having a “closing condition”. For example triangle angles should add to 180. Some blunders can also be detected by repetition. Blunders, because they are large and irregular, can only be corrected by remeasurement. 2. Systematic Errors are those that occur on a regular basis following a predictable pattern. For example, a tape that is stretched too long will always record a small measurement, and the error will be proportional to the amount of tape used. Proportional errors are called “scale” systematic errors . Other systematic errors are “constant” systematic errors . For example, a tape with a one-foot section removed and then spliced together will always record an error of exactly one foot if the splice is included in the portion of tape used. Systematic errors are detected

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Lecture-Theory of Meas Errors - Lecture Theory of Repeated...

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