Drew - Aging and the Role of Reactive Nitrogen Species...

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Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 959: 66–81 (2002). © 2002 New York Academy of Sciences. Aging and the Role of Reactive Nitrogen Species BARRY DREW AND CHRISTIAAN LEEUWENBURGH Biochemistry of Aging Laboratory, Box 118206, College of Health and Human Performance, College of Medicine, Center for Exercise Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA ABSTRACT: The role of reactive oxygen species and its effects on aging has re- ceived considerable attention in the past 47 years since Dr. Denham Harman first proposed the “free radical theory of aging.” Though not completely under- stood due to the incalculable number of pathways involved, the number of manuscripts that facilitate the understanding of the underlying effects of reac- tive radical species on the oxidative stress on lipids, proteins, and DNA and its contribution to the aging process increases nearly exponentially each year. More recently, the role of reactive nitrogen species, such as nitric oxide and its by-products—nitrate (NO 3 ), nitrite (NO 2 ), peroxynitrite (ONOO ), and 3-ni- trotyrosine—have been shown to have a direct role in cellular signaling, vasodi- lation, and immune response. Nitric oxide is produced within cells by the actions of a group of enzymes called nitric oxide synthases. Presently, there are three distinct isoforms of nitric oxide synthase: neuronal (nNOS or NOS-1), in- ducible (iNOS or NOS-2), and endothelial (eNOS or NOS-3), and several sub- types. While nitric oxide (NO ) is a relative unreactive radical, it is able to form other reactive intermediates, which could have an effect on protein function and on the function of the entire organism. These reactive intermediates can trigger nitrosative damage on biomolecules, which in turn may lead to age-re- lated diseases due to structural alteration of proteins, inhibition of enzymatic activity, and interferences of the regulatory function. This paper will critically review the evidence of nitration and the important role it plays with aging. Fur- thermore, it will summarize the physiological role of nitration as well as the mechanisms leading to proteolytic degradation of nitrated proteins within bio- logical tissues. KEYWORDS: nitric oxide; apoptosis; oxidants; protein nitration; denitrase INTRODUCTION The role of nitric oxide (NO) has received considerable attention during the past 15 years. Because of its harmful effects on the environment from automobile ex- haust, short half-life, and relatively unknown therapeutic benefits, it did not receive much attention from a biological perspective until the 1980s. However in 1987, NO Address for correspondence: Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Ph.D., University of Florida, Bio- chemistry of Aging Laboratory, 25 FLG, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 118206, Gainesville, FL 32611. Voice: 352-392-9575, ext. 1356; fax: 352-392-0316. [email protected]; web page: http://grove.ufl.edu/~cleeuwen/
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2011 for the course BCH 3218 taught by Professor Johnsteward during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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Drew - Aging and the Role of Reactive Nitrogen Species...

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