Honors - Theories of Aging and Strategies to promote...

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Theories of Aging and Strategies to promote Healthy Aging and Strategies to promote Healthy Aging Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Ph.D. Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Ph.D. Biochemistry of Aging Laboratory Web Page: http://grove.ufl.edu/~cleeuwen/ University of Florida University of Florida Seminar for Vermont Medical College 2003 Naomi K. Fukagawa , M.D., Ph.D. Why do we age? What are good anti -aging interventions? aging interventions? Aging: Progressive Universal Post-maturation Irreversible? Senescence: Deleterious Aging Age-related diseases: are the clinical manifestations of senescence What is Aging? Wallace DC Leading Causes of Death 1900 ; 2003; 1) pneumonia, tuberculosis 1) heart disease 2) GI infections, diarrhea 2) cancer 3) heart disease 3) neurodegenerative diseases 4) sarcopenia related injury Weindruch Maximum Life-span Mean Life-Span • Mean life-span (MLS) is the average life-span age of a cohort studied. Often influenced by the environment, disease, and life-style • Maximum life-span potential is the maximum age of one individual within a cohort studied. Mostly genetically determined (MLSP) General Objectives What is the objective of The National Institute on Aging The National Institute on Aging and various groups investigating mechanisms of aging and strategies for healthy aging. –Improved understanding of the mechanisms of longevity can be used to fight age-related diseases and disabilities to ensure a healthy, active, and independent life well into very old age Molecular Gene Theories Codon restriction - Fidelity/accuracy of mRNA translation is impaired due to inability to decode codons in mRNA. Error catastrophe - Fidelity of gene expression declines with age, resulting in increased fraction of abnormal proteins . Somatic mutation - Accumulation of molecular damage , primarily to DNA/genetic material. Dysdifferentiation - Gradual accumulation of random molecular damage impairs regulation of gene expression. Gene regulation - Aging caused by changes in gene expression regulating both aging and development. Gene expression protein folding and activity
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Cellular Theories •F r e e r a d i c a l - Oxidative metabolism produces highly reactive free radicals that subsequently damage protein and DNA. Mitochondrial DNA Damage (Mitochondrial Theory of Aging) • Wear and tear - Accumulation of normal injury – Inflammation Theory of Aging – Glycoxidation Theory of Aging (products from glucose with proteins + oxidation; AGE (advanced glycation End- products • Apoptosis - Programmed cell death resulting from intrinsic damage and genetically determined events or genome crisis. • Senescence - Phenotypes of aging are caused by an increase in frequency of senescent cells. Senescence may be the result of telomere loss (replicative senescence) or cell stress (cellular senescence).
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2011 for the course BCH 3218 taught by Professor Johnsteward during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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Honors - Theories of Aging and Strategies to promote...

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