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LECTURE-4 - Aging and Life-prolonging interventions Lecture...

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Aging and Aging and Life Life- prolonging interventions Lecture 4 *slide contributions by Drs C. Leeuwenburgh *slide contributions by Drs C. Leeuwenburgh T. Prolla Prolla and R. Weindruch Aging and Aging and Caloric restriction Caloric restriction Reduction in Caloric Intake without malnutrition Characteristics Characteristics Increases mean and maximum life span Increases mean and maximum life span Sixty years ago scientist at Cornell University made the Sixty years ago scientist at Cornell University made the extraordinary discovery extraordinary discovery - McCay McCay Reduces tumors, renal disease, Reduces tumors, renal disease, cardiomyopathy cardiomyopathy CR is effective starting at mid-age
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NIH-31/NIA Fortified Diet (CR)NIH31 Average Nutrient Composition (AL) Protein % 18.74 18.42 Fat % 4.41 4.47 Fiber % 4.58 4.05 Ash % 6.51 6.64 Nitrogen-Free Extract % 55.04 55.91 Gross Energy kcal/g 3.95 4.02 Digestible Energy kcal.g 3.36 -- Metabolizable Energy kcal.g 3.07 -- Linoleic Acid % 1.79 -- Moisture % -- 10.51 Amino Acids NIH-31/NIA Fortified NIH-31 Arginine % 1.10 1.06 Methionine % 0.36 0.39 Histidine % 0.42 0.41 Leucine % 1.50 1.61 Lysine % 0.96 0.95 Tryptophan % 0.22 0.24 Valine % 0.88 0.96 Cystine % 0.26 0.28 Isoleucine % 0.76 0.90 Threonine % 0.71 0.71 Pherylalanine % 1.53 Pherylalanine 0.92 +Tyrosine Tyrosine 0.70 Minerals NIH-31 Calcium % 1.03 1.06 Phosphorus % 0.93 0.92 Sodium % 0.30 0.26 Chlorine % 0.48 0.42 Potassium % 0.59 0.59 Magnesium % 0.20 0.20 Iron mg/Kg 336.41 300.20 Maganese mg/Kg 156.01 152.80 Zinc mg/Kg 48.41 50.40 Copper mg/Kg 13.28 13.20 Iodine mg/Kg 2.01 1.94 Cobalt mg/Kg 0.53 0.53 Selenium mg/Kg 0.30 -- Vitamins NIH-31/NIA Fortified NIH-31 Vitamin A IU/g 40.49 -- Vitamin A3 IU/g -- 30.73 Vitamin D3 IU/g 7.00 4.19 Vitamin E mg/Kg 52.15 38.30 Choline mg/g 2.60 1.96 Niacin mg/Kg 116.16 92.20 Pantothenic Acid mg/Kg 55.07 39.50 Pyridoxine mg/Kg 13.16 10.20 Riboflavin mg/Kg 11.04 7.80 Thiamine mg/Kg 123.44 77.30 Menadione mg/Kg 111.01 22.00 Folic Acid mg/Kg 2.13 1.70 Biotin mg/Kg 0.38 0.13 Vitamin B12 mcg/Kg 93.80 53.00 Vitamin C mg/g -- -- Carotene mg/Kg -- -- Caloric Restriction Increases Both Average and Maximal Life Span In Experimental Animals White Rat – On a normal diet, average life span is 23 months with a max of 33 months – When intake is restricted (by about 1/3), average life span is 33 months and maximal life span is 47 months Adapted from Hursting et al, Annual Reviews of Medicine, 54:131-152,2003.
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Continue Relationship has also been demonstrated with: spiders, insects, fish, and even protozoa. Monkey Studies are ongoing (from Weindruch, R. Scientific American, Jan. 1996 Summary 1 Caloric Restriction (CR) and Aging CR (30 - 50% caloric intake w/o malnutrition) is the only intervention shown in mammals to extend maximum lifespan and retard the development of a broad spectrum of age-associated pathophysiological changes. Three topics are being actively studied: Mechanisms by which CR retards aging in rodents Effects of CR on aging and diseases in primates Development of CR mimetics (e.g., nutraceuticals) Animals = Caloric Restriction increases maximum life span, it is thought to slow the aging process itself Monkeys = effects on “health” parameters, but we may predict that it will not effect longevity per se (MLSP), but only MLP.
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