test 4 notes 1 - T reatment of Thyroid Disorders...

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Treatment of Thyroid Disorders Physiologic Actions of Thyroid Hormone * Increases the synthesis of RNA and a variety of other protein products * Stimulates the growth and development of many organ systems during fetal stages, especially the nervous system, the skeletal muscles, and the reproductive system * Increases the metabolic rate of many tissues; speeds the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins * Produces and increases the expenditure of the body's energy by stimulating the production of ATP molecules * Increases the production and release of all other hormones, especially, estrogen and testosterone, insulin, the catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine), and the glucocorticoids (especially cortisol) * Potentiates the actions of the catecholamines on their receptors, especially their effects on the cardiovascular system * Stimulates appetite List of Thyroid Hormone Drugs Used to Treat Hypothyroidism Synthetic Drugs * levothyroxine (Synthroid) (Levothroid) (T4) ( Levoxyl ) (Unithroid) * liothyronine (Cytomel) (T3) (L-triiodothyronine) * liotrix (Thyrolar) (T4/T3) (Euthroid) Animal Extract * dessicated thyroid (Thyroid extract) (Armour Thyroid) Pharmacodynamics of the Thyroid Hormone Drugs Treatment of hypothyroidism with the thyroid hormone drugs is nothing more than replacement of the hormone deficiency that exists in the patient with hypothyroidism. Natural thyroid hormone exists in two forms in the circulating blood. Thyroxine (T4) is the most abundant form of the hormone that is synthesized and released from the thyroid gland. Triiodothyronine (T3) is the other form of the hormone and is actually the more potent of the two. Thyroxine is actually converted into triiodothyronine by the liver before it accomplishes its physiologic (and pharmacologic) actions. When administered as drugs, both T4 and T3 can be given and will act, pharmacologically, exactly the same as the natural forms of the hormones. They enter the target cells and move into the target cell nucleus where they interact with thyroid hormone receptors located on and linked to certain genetic sequences. When the hormone molecules bind with these genetic targets, these genes are activated to code for the increased production of RNA-stimulated protein synthesis. It is through these multiple protein synthetic mechanisms that the pharmacologic effects of both the synthetic and the natural animal forms of the 1
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Treatment of Thyroid Disorders hormones are recognized. In other words, the pharmacodynamics and the resulting pharmacologic and physiologic effects of the hormone drugs are identical to those of the natural hormone. Pharmacokinetics of the Thyroid Hormone Drugs All of the natural and synthetic forms of the thyroid hormone drugs are absorbed orally. Thyroxine is absorbed somewhat less efficiently compared to liothyronine. Thyroxine is also available for I.V. administration, if necessary. All of the thyroid
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2011 for the course NURSING 517/617 taught by Professor Lipstate during the Spring '11 term at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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test 4 notes 1 - T reatment of Thyroid Disorders...

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