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Unformatted text preview: Treatment With Estrogens and Progestins Physiologic Effects of Natural Estrogens Endogenous estrogen, the free hormone, enters its target cells by way of a transporter protein which "carries" it into the nucleus of the cell where it combines with an intranuclear receptor. This activates a specific region of DNA called the hormone response element (HRE). The HRE's are either activated or suppressed, depending on the individual target cell, and this action results in either the synthesis of specific enzymes or the inhibition of others that produce the physiologic effects of the estrogen. Recent investigations reveal that there are at least two different estrogen receptors referred to as E1 and E2; they are located on different estrogen target cells and are the reason why estrogen affects different target cells in different ways. The term estrogen (or endogenous estrogen) is actually a mixture of three different estrogenic compounds. These are estradiol, estriol, and estrone. Their physiologic actions include: - Stimulates the growth and differentiation of the female reproductive organs (ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina) - Enhances fat deposition in breasts, thighs, and buttocks - Initiates the growth and development of breast ducts and the stromal component of the breast - Stimulates somatic growth of females during puberty - Stimulates epiphyseal closure of long bones in females at the end of puberty - Stimulates the synthesis and release of prolactin hormone (for the stimulation of breast milk production) during pregnancy - Stimulates the growth and differentiation of endometrial tissues - Stimulates selected protein synthesis in its target cells - Stimulates the growth of vaginal mucosa - Causing thinning of cervical mucus - Stimulates bone osteoblast activity to maintain bone mass - Stimulates selected hepatic protein synthesis as follows: o Sex-hormone binding globulin o Thyroid-binding globulin o Angiotensinogen (The precursor of angiotensin I and II) o Blood clotting factors VII, VIII, IX, X o Plasminogen o High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) - Inhibits selected protein synthesis such as: o Antithrombin III o Low density lipoprotein (LDL) - Causes retention of sodium and water by the kidney (slight aldosterone effect) 1 Treatment With Estrogens and Progestins Physiologic Effects of Natural Progesterone - Stimulates growth and development of breast follicular (milk-producing) tissues - Stimulates secretory endometrium in estrogen-primed endometrial tissues - Increases basal body temperature by 1 degree (This is the basis for temperature determinations to pinpoint of the time of ovulation) - "Stabilizes" pregnancy; maintains uterine relaxation and secretory endometrium for the proper retention and placental attachment of the developing fetus - Inhibits uterine contraction - Causes a decrease in high density lipoproteins (HDL) - Causes an increase in low density lipoprotein (LDL) - Has partial antagonist activity on aldosterone receptors; promotes sodium and...
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2011 for the course NURSING 517/617 taught by Professor Lipstate during the Spring '11 term at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
- Spring '11