test 4 notes 5 - General Principles of Antibiotic Therapy...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
General Principles of Antibiotic Therapy Definition of Antimicrobial Therapy The term "antimicrobial agent" refers to all chemotherapeutic agents (i.e., drugs) used to treat (inhibit or kill) any microbial organism regardless of the classification of the organism. The term "microbial organism" includes any living organism capable of producing an infectious disease in another biological entity, including human beings. These microbial agents include bacteria, mycobacteria, viruses and funguses. Other organisms that are also included in the category of microbes are actinomycetes (nocardia and actinomyces), chlamydia, mycoplasma organisms (mycoplasma pneumoniae), rickettsia, spirochetes (treponema pallidum, leptospira, and borrelia), and parasites. The chemotherapeutic agents that are used to treat these organisms are subclassified into categories named antibacterial (or antibiotic), antimycobacterial, antiviral, and antifungal . They can also be referred to as antirickettsial, antichlamydial, antiparasitic, etc. Therapeutic Considerations in the Selection of Antimicrobial Agents There are several points that must be considered in order to make rational therapeutic decisions regarding the proper use of antimicrobial agents. 1. Must establish whether an infection (defined as the invasion of healthy tissue by microbial organisms) is present or not. There are no definite signs or symptoms that can precisely establish the presence of infection in all circumstances. - Fever may or may not be present. If present, it does not always signify infection. - Elevation of white count, normally thought to be present during an active infection, may be absent in many infections. - Erythema (redness), edema, and increased warmth are signs of inflammation that may indicate infection, but may also be present in severe inflammatory diseases without the existence of infection. - Purulent drainage (pus) usually is a clear sign of infection, but may be present without infection. Conversely, there are many infections that do not have purulent discharge as part of their pathophysiology. - Serologic studies may or may not be positive; many infections do not have serologic studies developed. 2. Must correctly identify (if possible) the etiologic organism(s) causing the infection. - Obtaining cultures (preferably before beginning antimicrobial therapy) may be possible and may identify the presence of certain species of microbes in the area of the infection. - There are some infections that are classically represented by certain signs and symptoms that can help to identify the infectious organism. - Identifying (in the case of bacteria) whether an organism is aerobic or anaerobic is an essential criterion in drug selection that must be made in order to establish a rational 1
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
General Principles of Antibiotic Therapy therapeutic plan. 3. Must select antimicrobial agents or combinations of agents with probable and predictable
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 05/19/2011 for the course NURSING 517/617 taught by Professor Lipstate during the Spring '11 term at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

Page1 / 7

test 4 notes 5 - General Principles of Antibiotic Therapy...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online