Genetics key words

Genetics key words - Genetics test 4: Key words Chapter 15...

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Genetics test 4: Key words Chapter 15 Point mutation --- alteration of a single base pair of DNA or small group of adjacent pairs 2 types Base insertion or deletions (indels) --- adding or removing a base pair Base substitutions --- mutation in which one base pair is switched Transitions and transversions (draw) Synonymous mutations --- when the mutation changes one codon but codes for the same amino acid (silent mutation) missense mutation --- when the mutation codes for a different amino acid nonsence mutation --- when the mutation codes for a stop codon conservative substitution --- when the missence mutation codes for a chemically similar amino acid will not drastically alter the form or function of the protien. Non-conservative substitution --- when the missence mutation codes for a chemically different amino acid and will alter the form or function of the protein. Frameshift mutation --- with indels, the reading frame (3 codon segments) is altered and if uncorrected will code for all different amino acids after the mutation. Spontaneous mutations --- naturaaly occurring mutations and arise in all cells Induced mutations --- arise through the action of certain agents (mutagens) that increase the rate at wich mutations occur Fluctuation test --- using replica plating Luria and Delbruk discovered that mutations can happen to any cell at any time and their occurrence is random. based of varied concentration of mutant cells after incubation. Replica plating --- reveals mutant colonies on a master plate through their behavior on selective replica plates. Resistant cells are selected by their environment rather than produced by it. Transitions Tautomers --- isomers that differ in the positions of their atoms and the bonds between their atoms Keto form --- normally present in DNA Imino form --- rare mispairing Enol form --- rare mispairing Tautomeric shift --- mutation resulting from the change of one tautomer
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Genetics test 4: Key words Transvertions Indel mutations (frameshift) --- insertions or deletions of one or more base pairs Spontaneous lesions --- naturally occurring damage to DNA and creates a apurinic site or site without one purine base pair. Depurination deamination of cytosine oxidative damage Trinucleotide repeat (disease) --- a common mechanism responsible for a number of genetic diseases, the expansion of a three-base-pair repeat. Prermutation --- trinucleotide repeat mutation carried by parents and grandparents of an infected individual but not significant enough to cause the disease Mechanisms for mutations Base analogs --- mutagens with chemical compounds sufficiently similar to normal nitrogen bases of DNA with pairing qualities unlike those of regular DNA base pairs. Specific mispairing --- some mutagens are not incorporated into the DNA but instead alter a base in such
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Genetics key words - Genetics test 4: Key words Chapter 15...

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