granular-elec - Eurographics/ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on...

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Unformatted text preview: Eurographics/ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation (2005) K. Anjyo, P. Faloutsos (Editors) Particle-Based Simulation of Granular Materials Nathan Bell 1 , Yizhou Yu 1 and Peter J. Mucha 2 1 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 2 Georgia Institute of Technology Abstract Granular materials, such as sand and grains, are ubiquitous. Simulating the 3D dynamic motion of such mate- rials represents a challenging problem in graphics because of their unique physical properties. In this paper we present a simple and effective method for granular material simulation. By incorporating techniques from physical models, our approach describes granular phenomena more faithfully than previous methods. Granular material is represented by a large collection of non-spherical particles which may be in persistent contact. The particles represent discrete elements of the simulated material. One major advantage of using discrete elements is that the topology of particle interaction can evolve freely. As a result, highly dynamic phenomena, such as splashing and avalanches, can be conveniently generated by this meshless approach without sacrificing physical accuracy. We generalize this discrete model to rigid bodies by distributing particles over their surfaces. In this way, two-way coupling between granular materials and rigid bodies is achieved. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS) : I.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: Computational Geometry and Object ModelingPhysically based modeling I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Three-Dimensional Graphics and RealismAnimation I.6.8 [Simulation and Modeling]: Types of SimulationAnimation 1. Introduction Granular materials, such as sand, soil, powders and grains, present an indispensable part of the real world. They are sim- ply very large ensembles of macroscopic particles [ JNB96 ]. Given their ubiquity, there is an inevitable need for granu- lar material simulation for graphics-related applications such as building virtual environments and animating natural phe- nomena. In fact, there have been a few inspirational tech- niques on this topic in graphics [ LM93 , CLH96 , SOH99 , ON03 ]. However, these techniques usually do not have suffi- cient spatial or physical accuracy to describe important gran- ular phenomena. More mature techniques for 3D environ- ments still need to be developed. In this paper, we aim to faithfully perform 3D dynamic simulations of granular ma- terials. In such simulations, we not only need to simulate the interactions, such as collisions and friction, among the parti- cles, but also the interactions between granular particles and other larger-scale objects. In addition to their role in graphics, granular materials have profound industrial significance. Indeed, the grinding of particles and ores alone accounts for an estimated 1.3% of U.S. electrical power consumption [ JGD94 ]. Hence there is considerable interest in developing models to better un- derstand granular behavior. Different from fluids and otherderstand granular behavior....
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granular-elec - Eurographics/ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on...

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