lecture5

lecture5 - Physics 2102 Gabriela Gonzlez Carl Friedrich...

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1 Physics 2102 Gabriela González Carl Friedrich Gauss 1777-1855 Electric Flux A surface integral! CLOSED surfaces: – define the vector dA as pointing OUTWARDS Inward E gives negative Φ Outward E gives positive Φ Φ = E d A
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2 Consider any ARBITRARY CLOSED surface S -- NOTE: this does NOT have to be a “real” physical object! The TOTAL ELECTRIC FLUX through S is proportional to the TOTAL CHARGE ENCLOSED! The results of a complicated integral is a very simple formula: it avoids long calculations! S (One of Maxwell’s 4 equations) Inside a conductor in electrostatic equilibrium , the electric field is ZERO . Why? Because if the field is not zero, then charges inside the conductor would feel forces and would be moving: the system is not in equilibrium yet. SO: the electric field pushes charges in a conductor to redistribute themselves until they make the field inside the conductor ZERO. Excess charges are always on the surface of the conductors (but never inside).
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3 Given a hollow conductor of arbitrary shape. Suppose an excess charge Q is placed on this conductor. Suppose the
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lecture5 - Physics 2102 Gabriela Gonzlez Carl Friedrich...

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