Spring03

Spring03 - "Grade or Education" = I CHEM 1002/01...

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Unformatted text preview: "Grade or Education" = I CHEM 1002/01 Spring 03 FinalExam 1 . Which of the following statements about heavy metals is wrong? A. Heavy metals generally cause poisoning by binding to proteins like enzymes involved in the production of ATP, corrupting their tertiary and quaternary structures by binding irreversibly to their sulfhydryl (SH) groups. B. BA]: (British AntiLewisite1 and EDTA (‘EthyleneDiamine Tetraacetic Acid) are chelating agents. _ __ C. A chelating agent destroys heavy metal atoms by converting them into other kinds of atoms. H D. Heavy metals are metabolic poisons. E. CO and Hg are both metabolic poisons, but Hg is a heavy metal whereas CO is not. Rationale: Chapter 18 Problems 22, 23, 26 2. Which of the following choices is wrong about energy generation? In 2005 the primary fuel used to generate energy will be petroleum. C A. B. Photovolaic (solar) cells are used to generate electricity from sunlight. . it is possible to generate electricity directly from solar energy. D. __ Four fuels which can be used to generate electricity are coal, uranium, running water, and natural gas. E. One benefit of generating electricity from sunlight is that it can be done easily in remote areas where it is not feasible to build large conventional power plants. Rationale: Chapter 13 Problems 4, 32, 38 3. Which of the following edible substances probably does n_o_t contain any carcinogens? Celery black pepper __ A. __ B. __ C. coffee m D. pure fructose (fruit sugar) __ E. edible mushrooms Rationale: Chapter 18 Problem 46 4. 5. 6. Which of the following substances can be used as an addition monomer? (CH3)23i(OH)2 H2NCH20H20H20H2NH2 CH3CH=CHCH3 __ A. __ B. _ C. ___, D. __ E. Sulfur in the vulcanization of rubber Rationale: Chapter 14 Problems 24, 28, 32 By using the messenger-RNA code table at the rear of this exam choose the amino acid sequence which would be created from the DNA sequence ...CACTGTGTAACA... (Hint: first figure out the m-RNA generated from the DNA sequence.) A ...Histidine-Cystine-Valine-Threonine... ...Threonine-Valine-STOP-Glutamine... B. C. ...Cystine-Histidine-Threonine-Valine... D. _ ...Tryptophan-Glutamine-Threonine-Valine... E. ...Valine-Threonine-Histidine-Cystine... —— Rationale: _ Chapter 15Problem 42 Which of the following statements about poisoning by the asphyxiants carbon monoxide and cyanide is wrong? A. Cyanide binds to cytochrome oxidase in cells preventing cells from being able to use oxygen. B. Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin in the blood, preventing the hemoglobin from carrying oxygen to cells. _ C. Carbon monoxide and cyanide are both asphyxiants because they prevent the body from using oxygen, but carbon monoxide prevents oxygen from reaching cells whereas cyanide prevents cells from using oxygen. D. Pure oxygen is the best treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning. —_—. W E. Thiocyanate is generally administered as an antidote for cyanide poisoning. Rationale: Chapter 18 Problems 13, 15, 17, 20, 21 7- Which of the following choices is correct? A. The tertiary structure of a protein is the folding structure held together by covalent peptide bonds in the backbone of the protein. B. A substrate binds to the active site of an enzyme and undergoes a chemical reaction. C. An enzyme binds to the active site of a substrate and undergoes a chemical reaction. ____, D. The primary structure of a protein is the sequence of amino acids held together by hydrogen bonding in the backbone of the protein. E. The secondary structure of a protein is the folding structure held together by hydrogen bonding in the sidechains of the protein. W Rationale: Chapter 15 Problems 12, 16 8. Which of the following statements is wrong? A. A generalized structure of an alpha amino acid is: 'i if H2N—(I3—C—OH R B. The one-letter abbreviations for the monomers used to build RNA are A,C, U, and G. C. The one-letter abbreviations for the monomers used to build DNA are A,C. T, and G. __ D. DNA is usually single-stranded wheres RNA is usually double-stranded. E. DNA monomers are built from deoxyribose whereas RNA monomers are built from ribose. Rationale: ' ' ' i Chapter 15 Problems 4. 46 9. What type of organic compound is represented below? m CO2CH3 __ A amide ____ B ester _ C. amine _ D carboxylic acid __ E. alcohol Rationale: Chapter 14 Problem 10(1) 10- Which of the statements below concerning water pollution analysis is m? H, A. BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) is an indirect method of analyzing water pollution that measures nonbiodegradable organic compounds in water by determining how quickly they can be decomposed with oxygen. __ B. Analysis of water samples from aquifers in the vicinity of hazardous-waste landfills should be done on a routine basis because landfilling waste creates the possibility for adversely impacting water quality. __ C. Trace amounts of organic pollutants dissolved in water can be analyzed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GO/MS) m D. Dissolved metals like vanadium and chromium which can contaminate water supplies can be analyzed by doing Atomic Absorbtion (AA) spectrometry on contaminated water samples. __ E. Analysis of air samples in the vicinity of hazardous-waste incinerators should be done on a routine basis because incinerating waste creates the possibility for adversely impacting air quality. Rationale: I Chapter 20 Problems 18, 25, 28, 29 11. Which of the following definitions is wrong? “I- A. B. Particulate matter is any solid material suspended in air which is composed of particles larger than 1 nm; these give the air a hazy or smoky appearance. Aerosols are made of liquid particles suspended in air or solid particles which are smaller than 1 nm in size, and thus undetectable to the naked eye. __ C. An industrial-type smog is a smog which contains sulfur oxides and is chemically oxidizing and a photochemical smog is a smog which contains nitrogen oxides and is chemically reducing. __ D. Polluted air is air which should be fresh, but which contains contaminants making it unfit to breathe. ' __ E. A thermal inversion is a situation where cool polluted city air becomes trapped beneath an upper layer of warmer air because the polluted air is unable to rise into the upper layer and dissapate the pollution. Rationale: Chapter 21 Problems 1, 7 12- What type of organic compound is represented below? on NH2 A. alcohol B. carboxylic acid _ C. ester __ D. amine __ E. amide Rationale: Chapter 14 Problem 10(a) 1 3. Using the amino acid table at the back of this exam name the tripeptide shown below. T ii T (IT T ICI) H2N—?—C—N—?—C“N—C—C—OH CH2 H C|3H2 H +H2 CH2 /C{'| éH H3C CH3 __ A. Leu-Met-Phe ____ B. Phe-Met-Leu __ C. Val-Cys-Tyr _ D. Tyr-Cys-Leu E. Tyr—Cys-Val “H... Rationale: Chapter 15 Problem 33 14. Which of the following statements concerning cancer treatment is wrong? Chemotherapy is a mode of treatment for existing cancers. Radiation therapy is a mode of treatment for existing cancers. __ A. __ B. _ C. Antimetabolites and alkylating agents are both forms of chemotherapy drugs. M D. Antipyretics are chemotherapy drugs. E. Surgery is a mode of treatment for existing cancers. Rationale: Chapter 19 Problems 11, 38 15. Which of the following definitions is wrong? __ A. An aquifer is an area underground which contains groundwater. B. Groundwater is water which is underground (ie. covered with earth) such as rainwater which has soaked into the earth and filled up underground aquifers. _ C. Water pollution is a condition where water is not pure, such as water containing sizeable amounts of salt. D. Surface water is water that is above ground (ie. not covered with earth) such as water in lakes, rivers, and reservoirs. E. Brackish water is water which is ordinarily fresh, but has become contaminated with salt, such as water in a depleted aquifer which has had ocean water seep in and pollute the aquifer. Rationale: Chapter 20 Problems 1, 6, 8 16. 17. Which of the following choices associates the correct name with the substance or mixture of substances whose formula(s) is/are given? A. The substance whose structural formula is shown immediately below is called 5-ethyl-4,4-dimethyloctane. B. The substance whose structural formula is shown immediately below is called benzene. O C. The substance whose structural formula is shown immediately below is called 2-methylpentene. D. The substance whose structural formula is shown immediately below is called 2-methyl-2-hexene. M E. The substance with the formula C4H8 is called butane. Rationale: Chapter 12 Problems 10, 18, 28 Which of the following statements about nuclear energy is correct? A. Slow neutrons are needed to cause nuclear fission to occur. B. Nuclear fusion generates small atoms by breaking apart larger ones. C. A moderator slows down the rate of a nuclear fission reaction. D. Nuclear fission uses very small atoms as starting material for the reaction, producing larger atoms as the products of fission. E. A moderator slows down the rate of a nuclear fusion reaction. W Rationale: Chapter 13 Problems 8, 15, 20 18- Which of the following statements is M? A. In a photochemical smog nitrogen oxides cycle between NO and N02, using oxygen and sunlight to form ozone, and particulates and water vapor combine to make a smog aerosol mixture which catalyzes (facilitates) the pollution chemistry involving the nitrogen oxides, oxygen, and sunlight. B. A chemically—reducing type smog, also called a photochemical smog, requires nitrogen oxides, sunlight, oxygen, particulates, and fog (water vapor) to form. C. The two regions of atmosphere closest to the earth are called the troposphere and the stratOSphere; the troposphere is closer to the earth. __,_ D. Normal rainwater has a pH value slightly below 7 (neutral) because it combines with natural carbon dioxide in the air, which is slightly acidic, to form some carbonic acid; this situation is n_ot considered to be "acid rain." E. Automobile catalytic converters help to control carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nitrogen oxide emissions from automobiles. Rationale: Chapter 21 Problems 14, 18, 25, 31 1 9. Which of the following substances can be used as a condensation monomer which will react with itself (same monomer) to produce a liquid polymer? __ A. CH3CH=CHCH3 __ B. HOOCCHQCHQCDOl-l _ c. CH3Si(OH)3 __ D- (CH3)2Si(OH)2 E. H2NCHzCHQCH2CH2NH2 Rationale: Chapter 14 Problem 32 20. What type of organic compound is represented below? O2NH2 amide ester __ A. __ B- _ C. alcohol __ D. amine _ E. carboxylic acid Rationale: Chapter 14 Problem 10(h) 21. 22. 23. What type of organic compound is represented below? /Y\ COOH amide alcohol carboxylic acid __ A. m B. __... C. W" D. ester H, E. amine Rationale: Chapter 14 Problem 10(c) Which of the following statements is wrong? A. The equation: C + H20 —9 CO + H2 represents the process which forms synthesis gas from coal. B. The three major fossil fuels are natural gas, petroleum, and coal. C. Coal and petroleum are primarily made of carbon and hydrogen, and natural gas is primarily propane. D. The first four members of the saturated hydrocarbon series are: methane, CH4; ethane, CQHG; propane, CsHs; and butane, C4H10. E. The equation: 2 C + 2 H20 —> 002 + CH4 represents the process which forms methane from coal. Rationale: Chapter 12 Problems 2, 4, 10, 34 Which of the following definitions is wrong? A. Cellulose is a straight-chain beta-D-glucose polymer. B. An unsaturated fatty acid is a carboxylic acid containing at least ten carbon atoms with one or more double bonds in its hydrocarbon "tai|.'I C. Glycogen is a straight-chain alpha-D-glucose polymer similar to, but larger than amylose. __ D. Starches are alpha-D-glucose polymer mixtures composed of straight-chain amylose molecules and branched amylopectin molecules. E. A saturated fatty acid is a carboxylic acid containing at least ten carbon atoms with no double bonds in its hydrocarbon "tail." Rationale: Chapter 15 Problems 22, 24 24. 25. 26. Which of the following statements about tertiary water treatment methods is correct? A. The best tertiary water treatment method for purifying water contaminated with nitrogen compounds like ammonia (NH3) is reverse osmosis. B. The best tertiary water treatment method for purifying water contaminated with sea water (salt water) is carbon filtration. C. The best tertiary water treatment method for purifying water contaminated with dissolved organic compounds is carbon filtration. __ D. The best tertiary water treatment method for purifying water contaminated with nitrogen compounds like ammonia (NH3) is carbon filtration. E. The best tertiary water treatment method for purifying water contaminated with dissolved organic compounds is reverse osmosis. Rationale: Chapter 20 Problems 41, 48, 50 Which of the following statements about toxicology is wrong? A. The six classes of toxins defined by the field of toxicology are: corrosive poisons, metabolic poisons, neurotoxins, teratogens, mutagens, and carcinogens. B. Breathing toxic substances tends to allow them into the bloodstream faster than eating them or exposing them to unprotected skin. C. If a substance has a very high LD50 for a rat than in is probably extremely toxic for a mouse and for a human as well. D. If a substance binds to the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, preventing it from decomposing acetylcholine, resulting in excessive acetylcholine buildup in nerve synapses and excessive nerve activity, this substance is known as an anticholinesterase poison. E. If a substance passes through the placenta and into the bloodstream of a developing fetus causing harm, the substance is known as a teratogen. Rationale: Chapter 18 Problems 2, 6, 7, 36, 39 Which of the following correctly matches a drug class with the type of disease or condition it is intended to treat? analgesics: inflammation vasodilators: asthma diuretics: hypertension antihistamines: cold and flu _.—— _ A. _ B. _ C. __ D. __ E. antibiotics: viral infections Rationale: Chapter 19 Problems 4, 10, 11, 35, 36 10 27. Which of the following statements is wrong about gasoline production technology? __ A. Catalytic cracking involves treating a hydrocarbon mixture with a catalyst which converts large hydrocarbons into smaller hydrocarbons. __ 8. Catalytic reforming involves treating a gasoline mixture with a catalyst which converts straight-chain hydrocarbons into branched hydrocarbons. __,_ C. An octane rating is a measure of how well an engine performs while burning a gasoline mixture relative to how well the same engine performs while burning mixtures of isooctane and heptane. __ D. Benzene, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, and methyl-t-butyl ether are three additives which would raise the octane rating if added to straight-run gasoline. __ E. Reformulation involves treating a gasoline mixture with a reforming catalyst followed by oxygenation of the gasoline, typically with methyl-t—butyl ether. Rationale: Chapter 12 Problems 32, 35, 42 28. Which of the figures quoted below is accurate? __ A. In round numbers about 20% of the solar radiation striking the earth is reflected back into space. __ B. In round numbers the United States has a little under 50,000 quads of solar energy reach it every year. ____ C. In round numbers just under 10% of the electricity generated in the Unites States is produced from nuclear energy. __ D. In round numbers the world uses just under 50 quads of energy per year. __ E. In round numbers the United States uses a little under 50,000 quads of energy per year. Rationale: Chapter 13 Problems 16, 26, 28, 29 29. Which of the statements below about ozone is correct? __ A. A small concentration of ozone in the upper atmosphere is important because it helps minimize global warming. __ B. CFC’s are carbofluorochlorine compounds; these were once used for refrigeration, air conditioning, circuit-board cleaning, foaming styrofoam, and propellants in products like hairspray, but have been phased out of production due to the damage they cause to earth's ozonelayeh _ C. Ozone in the troposphere is important because it absorbs UV radiation that can cause skin cancen __ D. Ozone in the stratosphere is formed from a cyclical series of reactions catalyzed by nitrogen oxides. ____ E. The cycle of reactions which allows a chlorine atom to destroy 100,000 ozone molecules also prevents 100,000 new ozone molecules from being formed in the first place; over time this causes the ozone layer to have 200,000 fewer ozone molecules than it would have had in the absence of the chlorine atom. Rationale: Chapter 21 Problems 8, 18, 34, 38, 40 11 30. Which of the following statements concerning the biochemical functions of various biochemicals and receptors is wrong? A. Histamine is a neurotransmitter in the brain; therefore antihistamines which can cross the blood-brain barrier and block histamine binding to neuron receptors in the brain cause drowsiness by blocking nerve action in the brain which is responsible for alertness. B. When beta receptor sites in heart muscle bind to the hormone adrenaline the heart muscle cells respond by causing the heart to beat more forcefully but not more rapidly. C. Barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and ethanol depress nerve activity whereas amphetamines stimulate nerve activity. D. Hormones and neurotransmitters function by binding to receptors on the outsides of cells; this causes these cells to perform some needed biochemical function, like generating an electrical impulse in the case of neurotransmitters binding to neuron receptors, or producing biochemicals needed by the body in the case of hormones binding to hormone receptors. E. Antihistamines function by binding to histamine receptors on cells that respond to histamine by producing allergic reactions; antihistamines block histamine from binding to these receptors and thus prevent the cells from producing an inflammatory allergic response to histamine. Rationale: Chapter 19 Problems 12, 13, 14, 18, 26 12 15.1 I Continued TABLE 1 5 .l I Common L-Amino Acids Found in Proteins (The R Group u '0 Add Abbreviation ' in Each Amino Acid Is Highlighted) v - Su‘uctm‘e Polar but Neutral R Gmups' (cont) Amino Acid Abbreviation Sanctum ‘I..=_:I€§5r_c:)sine Tyr Nonpolar R Groups Glycine Gly (EHHCOOH NH2 ' t I'T'ihfiwm‘f—v I Alanine Ala ‘ ’ ' iii-*CHHCOOH ;' ,_ TI}:- _, gt Er? i.- |_. '_ I.‘ ‘2' 2.17.4"?! ' I Cfiparagine ' Asn m..- .. . "‘.'l.""-'.. _. *Valine ' Val *Leucine Len *Isoleucine Ile Proline Pro ' v .- Clutamic acid Gltl acid ASP *Phenylalanine Phc ié—CHHCOOH 5.5%?‘311‘COOH —' .— I NH2 _‘ .|.. __ - *Methibnine Met Serine Ser -“;€?-CH-—-COOH f '. -' I _' ppnmfi-H '1' l'.-‘ ' *Threonine Thr i CYStEiflC CYS L $3.": :— . II '- *E85¢ntial amino acids that must be part of the human diet. The other amino acids can be synthesized by the I - I body. NH! TGmwing children also require arginine in their diet. 1 5 .6 I Messenger RNA Codes for Amino Acids* Third Letter Second Letter of Code of Code fin groups of three (called codons) , bases of mRNA. code the order of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. A. C, G, and U represent adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil, respectively. Some amino acids have more than one codon, and hence more than one tRNA can bring the amino acid to mRNA, Answer Key 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. "Grade or Education” = I CHEM1002/01 SpringO3 FinalExam 19. D 20. A 21. C 22. C 23. C 24. C 25. C 26. c 27. E 28. B 29. E 30.. B ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2011 for the course CHM 1201 taught by Professor Hogan during the Spring '11 term at LSU.

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Spring03 - "Grade or Education" = I CHEM 1002/01...

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