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Spring07 - 1 2"Grade or Education" = 1 CHEM...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 . 2. "Grade or Education" = 1 CHEM 1002/01 Spring 07 FinalExam Which of the statements below CORRECTLY gives the class of drugs a particular type of drug belongs to? _ A. A benzodiazepine is a stimulant. _ B. A barbiturate is a depressant. _ C. An amphetamine is a depressant. __ D. Ethanol is a stimulant. _ E. An antibiotic is an antiviral drug Rationale: Chapter 19 Problems 4, 14 Which of the statements about smog is WRONG? _ A. A reducing smog is generated from nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, oxygen, water vapor and suanhL _ B. Catalytic converters help to remove nitrogen oxides and unburned hydrocarbons from automobile exhaust, and thereby help prevent the formation of a photochemical smog. _ C. A photochemical smog is created from nitrogen oxides. __ D. An industrial smog is a reducing smog. __ E. Sunlight is necessary for the creation of a photochemical smog but it is not necessary for the creation of an industrial smog. Rationale: Chapter 21 Problems 7, 14, 25 Choose the CORRECT statement from the choices below regarding purifying water contaminated with various pollutants. _ A. Too high a concentration of nitrogen compounds like ammonia (NH3) are most effectively removed from water samples using reverse osmosis. __ B. Dissolved organic compounds are most effectively removed from home drinking water using carbon filtration (charcoal filters). __ C. Dissolved organic compounds are most effectively removed from home drinking water using reverse 08mOSIS. _ D. Brackish water or sea water is most effectively purified to produce drinking water using denitrifying bacteria. _ E. Brackish water or sea water is most effectively purified to produce drinking water using carbon filtration. Rationale: Chapter 20 Problems 41, 48, 50 4- Which of the following statements is WRONG about the chemical whose molecular structure is shown below? A. It is a branched hydrocarbon. B. It should have a higher octane rating than straight-run gasoline. C. It could be made from a straight-chain 12-carbon hydrocarbon in a process known as catalytic reforming. _ D. Its name is 4,4-dimethyl-5-propylheptane. __ E. its name is 5-ethyl-4,4-dimethyloctane Rationale: Chapter 12 Problems 18b, 32, 35, 42 5. Look at the structures shown below and the numbers beneath them which refer to them. Choose the statement which CORRECTLY matches a particular kind of organic compound with one of these structures. '9’ i? t? i? ii H2N-C-NH2 CH-SC-O-CHS CH-SC-OH CH-SCNH2 CHéC-H l 2 3 A 5 is an amine. 14> is an amine. _ A. _ B. 1 _ C. s is a carboxylic acid. *_ D. g is an ether. _ E. 5_ is an ester. Rationale: Chapter 14 Problem 10 6- Choose the statement in which the underlined term is CORRECTLY used or defined. 7. _ A. The troposphere is the layer of atmosphere closest to the earth. 2.. B. A particulate is a liquid or very small (less than 1 micron in size) solid particle suspended in air which can catalyze pollution chemistry on its surface; particulates do not give the air a hazy appearance. _ C. Polluted air is air which contains any chemicals other than oxygen. __ D. A thermal inversion occurs when polluted ground-level city air is warmer than air above it, so it is able to rise above the cooler air and dissipate its pollution. _ E. An aerosol is a small (but larger than 1 micron in size) solid particle suspended in air which can catalyze pollution chemistry on its surface; aerosols give the air a smoky appearance. Rationale: Chapter 21 Problems 1, 18 Which of the following statements about energy usage in the US is WRONG? _ A. Experts all agree that in 2025 the primary source of energy in the US will be solar power. _ B. Wind power is LLQI a fu_el that is used in the US to generate electricity. _ C. Water power can be used instead of a fuel in the US to generate electricity. __ D. The US uses about 100 quads of energy per year. __ E. The primary source of energy in the US in the year 2005 was petroleum. Rationale: Chapter 13 Problems 4, 29, 38 Which of the following statements regarding nuclear energy is WRONG? ___ A. A little less than 20% of the electricity produced in the US comes from nuclear fusion. __ B. The starting material in a nuclear fusion reaction is made of lighter atoms than the products of the fusion reaction _ C. A moderator is used to speed up nuclear fission reactions. __ D. A little less than 20% of the electricity produced in the US comes from nuclear fission. ,_ E. In a fission reaction heavy atoms are broken down into smaller atoms with the release of energy. Rationale: Chapter 13 Problems 8, 15, 16, 20 9. 10. 11. Which of the following statements about metabolic poisons is WRONG? Heavy metals like Hg and asphyxiants like CO are metabolic poisons. H2804 and HF are metabolic poisons. BAL and EDTA chelating agents used to detoxify heavy metal poisons. Heavy metals are metabolic toxins which often cause poisoning by tying up the sulfhydryl groups of proteins like enzymes and interfering with their tertiary structures. Chelating agents function by rendering heavy metal metabolic poisons like Pb and Hg harmless. Rationale: Chapter 18 Problems 22, 23, 26 Which of the following statements is WRONG? _A. If a toxic substance is able to pass through the placenta and enter the bloodstream of a fetus it may be a teratogen. Table salt probably contains significant amounts of carcinogens. Table sugar probably does not contain significant amounts of carcinogens. Teratogens must pass through the placenta in order to cause damage to a fetus. Celery which has not been grown with the aid of insecticides may contain trace amounts of carcinogens. Rationale: Chapter 18 Problems 39, 46 Which of the following structural descriptions of molecules of various biochemicals is WRONG? __ A. Unsaturated fatty acid molecules have carboxylic acid groups attached to long straight hydrocarbon chains containing at least ten carbons with one or more carbon-carbon double bonds. __ B. Cellulose molecules are all branched polymers of B-D-glucose. __ C. Glycogen molecules are all branched polymers of oc-D-glucose. _ D. An amino acid monomer molecule which can be used used to make a protein has a carboxylic acid group, an amino group, a hydrogen atom, and some other group all attached to the same alpha carbon. _ E. Starch molecules are all polymers of a-D-glucose. Rationale: Chapter 15 Problems 4, 22, 23 12. 13. 14. Choose the CORRECT statement from the choices involving detecting pollutants in water. _ A. BOD measures the total amount of organic compounds dissolved in a water sample, regardless of whether or not these compounds are biodegradable. ._ B. BOD measures water pollution indirectly by measuring the amount of oxygen which needs to be given to bacteria in order for them to decompose all of the nonbiodegradable inorganic chemicals dissolved in a water sample. __ C. A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GO/MS) is commonly used to measure the amounts of dissolved metals like vanadium (V) and chromium (Cr) in water samples. _ D. An atomic absorbtion spectrometer (AA) can be used to determine the quantity of dissolved metal ions in a water sample. _ E. If a water sample has a very high BOD level then it is very pure. Rationale: Chapter 20 Problems 25, 28, 29 Which of the following statements is WRONG? ~_ A. CH38i(OH)3 can be made to react with itself in an addition reaction to make silicone oil. _ B. (CH3)2Si(OH)2 can be made to react with itself in a condensation reaction to make silicone oil. _ C. H2NCHZCHzCH2CH2NH2 can be made to react with a dicarboxylic acid (diacid) in a condensation reaction to produce a polyamide. _ D. CH3CH=CHCH3 can be made to react with itself in an addition reaction to make poly-2-butene __ E. HOOCCHgCHzCOOH can be made to react with a diamine in a condensation reaction to produce a polyamide. Rationale: Chapter 14 Problem 32 Which of the statements is CORRECT about the chemical which has the molecular formula CH4? __ A. It could be converted into CBH18, octane, in a process known as catalytic cracking. _ B. It is one of the three major fossil fuels, known as coal. _ C. It is one of the first four members of the series of saturated hydrocarbons known as methane. __ D. A mixture of this chemical and H2 is obtained by reacting pulverized coal with steam; this mixture is known as synthesis gas. _ E. it is the primary component of petroleum. Rationale: Chapter 12 Problems 2, 4, 10, 34, 35b 15- Which of the following definitions is WRONG? A. RNA is a nucleic acid polymer comprised of ribose, phosphate, and nucleotide bases abbreviated C, G, A, and U. It is found both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm of a cell, and it is usually single-stranded. B. Starches are carbohydrate polymer mixtures comprised of amylose and amylopectin. The monomer units in these polymers are held together by oc-linkages. C. Cellulose is a carbohydrate polymer whose monomer units are held together by B-linkages. D. A protein is a substance which binds to the active site of a substrate and undergoes a chemical reaction facilitated by the substrate. E. The tertiary structure of a protein is the structure which arises from the folding of single protein molecules brought about by interactions between'the sidechains of different amino acid monomer units within the same protein molecule. Rationale: Chapter 15 Problems 12, 16, 22, 46 16. Which of the following general statements about toxicology is WRONG? _ A. A high LD50 implies a low toxicity and vice-versa. B. The six classes of toxic substances recognized by the field of toxicology are corrosives, metabolic toxins, neurotoxins, teratotogens, mutagens, and carcinogens. C. If a substance has a very low LD50 for a rat it is probably also not very toxic for a mouse. D. Inhalation allows toxic substances to enter the bloodstream faster than skin absorbtion or ingestion (eating). E. If a substance has a very low LD50 for a rat it is probably very toxic to a human. Rationale: Chapter 18 Problems 2, 6, 7 At the back of this exam is a messenger-RNA code table which can be used to translate a messenger RNA sequence into the protein sequence it produces. Use your knowledge of complementary bases along with this table to solve the next three problems. 1 7. A segment of a DNA strand has the base sequence ...AAAGTTCCAGCA... What is the base sequence in the complementary m-RNA? _ A. ...TGCTGGAACTIT... _ B. ...ACGACCUUGAAA... _ C. ...UUUCAAGGUCGU... __ D. ...UGCUGGAACUUU... _ E. ...‘l'l'l'CAAGGTCGT... Rationale: Chapter 15 Problem 42a 18- What is the anticodon order in t-RNA produced by the m-RNA from the previous problem? _ A. .ACGACC'lTGAAA... __ B. ...UGCUGGAACUUU... _ C. ..AAAG'ITCCAGCA... _ D. ...ACGACCUUGAAA... __ E. ...AAAGUUCCAGCA... Rationale: Chapter 15 Problem 42b 1 9. Consult your m-RNA code table to determine the amino acid sequence generated by the DNA and RNA sequences you worked with in the previous two problems. .. .phenylalanine-glutamine-glycine-arginine... ...cysteine-tryptophan-asparagine-phenylalanine... A B C. ...threonine-threonine-leucine-lysine... D ...glutamine-histidine-leucine-lysine... E ...valine-valine-asparagine-phenylalanine... Rationale: Chapter 15 Problem 420 20. Which of the following statements about cyanide and carbon monoxide poisoning is WRONG? Cyanide poisons primarily by binding to cytachrome oxidase in a cell. Carbon monoxide poisons primarily by binding to hemoglobin in a red blood cell in the blood. _ A. _ B. __ C. The Lugs; medical antidote for carbon monoxide poisoning is pure oxygen. _ D. Carbon monoxide poisons by asphyxiation but cyanide does not. E. The antidote for cyanide poisoning is sodium thiosulfate. Rationale: Chapter 18 Problems 13, 15, 17, 20, 21 21 . Which of the choices CORRECTLY matches a drug class with the disease it is intended to treat? _ A. Decongestants are used to treat coughs. _ B. Antihistamines are used to treat colds and flu. _ C. Vasodilators are used to treat asthma. _ D. Beta blockers are used to treat heart disease. E. Diuretics are used to treat THC buildup from cannabis use. Rationale: Chapter 19 Problems 10, 11, 35, 36 22. 23. 24. Which of the statements about anticholinesterase poisons below is CORRECT? _A. _ B. _C. _D. _E. Anticholinesterases are typically alkaloids like morphine or heroine. Anticholinesterases overstimulates nerves causing them to fire excessively. Anticholinesterases destroy acetylcholine. Anticholinesterases can be detoxified by chelating agents. Anticholinesterases destroy the enzymes which manufacture acetylcholine. Rationale: Chapter 18 Problem 36 Which of the following statements is CORRECT about solar energy? __ A. A benefit arising from the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity which could not be obtained from other forms of energy is the ability of photovoltaic cells to power small handheld devices like calculators for a lifetime without ever having to replace the power source. _ B. It is not possible to directly convert solar energy into electricity. _ C. A bit less than 5,000 quads of solar energy reaches the US each year __ D. About 20% of the solar radiation striking the Earth is reflected back into space. -2 E. The direct conversion of solar energy into electricity could be done by allowing sunlight to heat and boil water, producing steam which reacts with coal, producing synthesis gas, which could be converted into methanol and burned, generating electricity. Rationale: Chapter 13 Problems 26, 28, 32 Choose the statement from below which is WRONG concerning structural aspects of polymers. __ A. In order to undergo addition polymerization and vulcanization with sulfur a molecule must have more than one carbon-carbon double bond. ._ B. In the vulcanization process sulfur makes natural rubber stiffer and less tacky. __ C. In the vulcanization process sulfur turns rubber into a condensation polymer. __ D. In the vulcanization process sulfur creates crosslinks between chains of linear rubber polymer molecules. __ E. A molecule must have a carbon-carbon double bond in order to undergo addition polymerization. Rationale: Chapter 14 Problems 24, 28 25. 26. 27. Which of the statements below about ozone is WRONG? __ A. Ozone in the troposphere is good, but ozone in the stratosphere is bad. _ B. Ozone in the troposphere is formed when NOX from automobile exhaust interacts with sunlight and molecular oxygen to generate oxygen atoms; the oxygen atoms then combine with oxygen molecules to make ozone molecules. __ C. in one cycle a chlorine atom in the stratosphere destroys an ozone molecule and prevents another one from ever being created; a chlorine atom can undergo 100,000 cycles of ozone destruction and prevention during the time that it spends in the stratosphere. _ D. CFC is an acronym for chlorofluorocarbons; these compounds destroy ozone in the stratosphere. __ E. Ozone in the stratosphere helps prevent the sun's UV radiation from causing skin cancer. Rationale: Chapter 21 Problems 8, 18, 34, 38, 40 Which of the following statements involving water-related environmental issues is WRONG? __ A. Rainwater becomes groundwater by flowing into rivers and lakes. __ B. Landfilling wastes has a greater tendency to impact water quality than incineration, whereas incineration tends to impact air quality more than landfilling does. _ C. Water pollution has occurred whenever water undergoes some change which makes it unfit for its normal use. __ D. Brackish water has some salt dissolved in it. ._ E. An aquifer is an underground area which holds water. Rationale: Chapter 20 Problems 1, 6, 8, 18 Choose the WRONG statement involving the role of receptors in biochemistry and pharmacology. _ A. Neurotransmitters and hormones require receptors for their action. _ B. When the beta receptor sites in heart muscle are stimulated the heart beats more rapidly but not more forcefully. _ C. Receptors are chemicals which circulate throughout the bloodstream and bind to cells causing these cells to undergo biochemical changes. __ D. Antihistamines block histamine receptor sites on cells and thereby prevent the cells from undergoing an allergic reaction. _,_ E. Since histamine is a stimulatory neurotransmitter in the brain, a side effect of antihistamines caused by blocking histamine receptors in the brain is drowsiness while taking first-generation antihistamines. Rationale: Chapter 19 Problems 12, 18, 26 28- Choose the WRONG statement about acid rain from below. __ A. sulfur oxides in the air can cause acid rain. _, B. Acid rain has a pH slightly below 7, but not below 5.6 _ C. Carbon dioxide in the air gives rain a pH of 5.6, but does not cause acid rain. __ D. Nitrogen oxides in the air can cause acid rain. ” E. Both nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides in the air can cause acid rain. Rationale: Chapter 21 Problems 7, 14, 31 29. Which of the structures shown below is described CORRECTLY (him: use the tables at the rear of the exam)? 0 H H H H 0 II I I? | l H II H2N -C—N —C-N OH H2N-(l3H-C-OH H H2 2 H2 R 3 ,Cl-i CH3 CH3 H 0 ll CH3—(CH2)§20-OH OH 1 A 0 it ll CH;(CH2)ZCH:CH—CH§CH:CH-(CH2)1—3C-OH H2N-CH-2CH-C-OH 2 R 5 The structure labelled g is that of an unsaturated fat. The structure labelled & is that of a saturated fat. __ A. _ B. _ C. The structure labelled 5 is that of an on amino acid. _ D. The structure labelled g is that of a saturated fatty acid. E. The structure labelled 1_ is that of a tripeptide with the primary structure Val-Tyr-Cys. Rationale: Chapter 15 Problems 4, 24, 33 30. Which of the statements is CORRECT about the chemical whose molecular structure is shown below? _ A. _ B. _ C. _ D. E. If used as a gasoline additive it would lower the octane rating of straight-run gasoline. It is the primary component of natural gas. It has an octane rating above 100. It would be removed by the process called catalytic reforming. Its name is cyclohexane. Rationale: Chapter 12 Problems 4, 28, 32, 350, 42 11 TABLE 1 5.1 I Common L-Amino Acids Found in Proteins (The R Group Amino Acid Abbreviation Structure Nanpolar R Groups Glycine Gly $H—COOH NH2 Alanine Ala ~(I3H—-COOH *Valine Val *Leucine Leu I"Isoleucine Ile Praline Pro 1 Glutamic acid Glu ASP *Phenylalanine Phe L . *MethiOnine Y5 Arg Serine His *Threonine Cysteine *BLE 15.1 I Continued Abbreviation Structure Amino Acid in Each Amino Acid Is Highlighted) »- Polar but Neutral R 61014», (cont) Thr l'Euendal amino acids that must be part of the human diet. The other amino acid! can be synthesized by the body. ”Knowing children also require nrginine in their diet. Cys TABLE 1 5 .6 I Messenger RNA Codes for Amino Acids* - Second Letter of Code of Code -—-_- U C" n —---- —-—-- c —--- —---— —--- _-——- A —--—- . - ' G t» C3 C O > O C1 D b *In groups of three (called codons) , bases of mRNA code the order of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. A. C, G, and U represent adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil, respectively. Some amino acids have more than one codon, and hence more than one LRNA can bring the amino acid to mRNA. w "Grade or Education" = 1 CHEM1002I01 SpringO? FinalExam 1 B 19. A 1 2 A 20. D 3 B 21. D 4 D 22. B 5 C 23. A 6 A 24. C 7 A 25. A 8 A 26. A 9 B 27. C 10. B 28. B 11. B 29. ERROR 12. D 30. C 13. A ,_fl,,,' 14. C 15. D 16. C 17. C 18. E 12 ...
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