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Concepts-Equations-Definitions-Symbols

# Concepts-Equations-Definitions-Symbols - Physics Final Exam...

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Physics Final Exam – Concepts and Equations Topic/Concept Equation/Definition Symbols 1. Introduction and Mathematical Concepts Since, cosine, and tangent functions of an angle are defined in terms of a right triangle that contains θ sinθ = h 0 /h cosθ = h a /h tanθ = h 0 /h a θ = angle h = hypotenuse h 0 = side opposite θ h a = side adjacent θ Pythagorean theorem states that the square of the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides h 2 = h 0 2 + h a 2 h = hypotenuse h 0 = side opposite θ h a = side adjacent θ 2. Kinematics in One Dimension Average Speed of an object is the distance traveled by the object divided by the time required to cover the distance average speed = distance elapsed time Average velocity of an object is the object’s displacement divided by the elapsed time; has the same direction as the displacement v = velocity x = displacement t = time Average velocity becomes equal to the instantaneous velocity when the elapsed time becomes infinitesimally small; velocity at an instant of time v = velocity x = displacement t = time Average acceleration of an object equals the change in velocity divided by the elapsed time— change in velocity is final minus initial a = acceleration v = velocity t = time

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When time becomes infinitesimally small, the average acceleration becomes equal to the instantaneous acceleration a = acceleration v = velocity t = time Equations of kinematics apply when an object moves with a constant acceleration along a straight line x = displacement v = velocity a = acceleration t = time 3. Kinematics in Two Dimensions Average velocity of an object moving between two positions is defined as its displacement divided by the elapsed time v = velocity r = displacement of object t = time Instantaneous velocity is the velocity of an object at an instant of time; average velocity equals instantaneous velocity in the limit that time becomes infinitesimally small v = velocity r = displacement of object t = time Average acceleration of an object is the change in velocity divided by the elapsed time a = acceleration v = velocity t = time Instantaneous acceleration is the acceleration at an instant of time; when time becomes infinitesimally small a = acceleration v = velocity t = time Motion in two dimensions can be x-component: v = velocity
described in terms of the time and the x and y components of four vectors: displacement, acceleration, and the initial and final velocities; x-component occurs exactly as it would if the y part did not occur at all—same with the y-component; x and y components are treated separately and time is the same for each component; equations apply when acceleration is constant; directions of components are conveyed by assigning a plus (+) or minus (-) sign to each one y-component: a = acceleration t = time x = displacement along x axis y = displacement along y axis Projectile motion is an idealized kind of motion that occurs when a

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Concepts-Equations-Definitions-Symbols - Physics Final Exam...

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