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Chapter 1 Review (from Michelle)

Chapter 1 Review (from Michelle) - CSD 1025 Exam Chapter 1...

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CSD 1025 Exam Chapter 1 1. Numbers, Quantities, Measures, and Dimensions Scientific notation : number system that permits a wide range of values to be handled easily o Translating any number into the product of a coefficient, multiplied by some power of 10 o Decimal point is always present Quantification yields a numerical value that reflects its size or magnitude Vectorial quantity: quantity with both magnitude and direction Scalar quantity: characterized by magnitude (must be of like dimensions) o I.e. time Dimensions of all physical quantities are length, time, and mass MKS: meters, kilograms, seconds CGS: centimeters, grams, seconds 2. Fundamental Physical Quantities Distance: spatial separation between two points o Length dimension, scalar quantity Displacement: an object moves from one place to another o Has both magnitude and direction, vectorial quantity Mass: property of all matter o Weight is a measure of the pull of gravity on a mass o Measure using a balance (compare the unknown to a standard measure Derived quantities
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o Velocity: length and time, movement of an object from one point to another consumes time, vectorial quantity o Speed: rate at which this distance is traveled, scalar quantity o A vector divided by a scalar is a vector Velocity equals the change in x (displacement) divided by the change in t (time) o Acceleration: fluctuations in velocity, vectorial quantity Deceleration is negative acceleration When velocity is constant a=0 Three aspects of motion of an object that are of interest: displacement, velocity, acceleration 3. Force, According to Newton Force: push or pull Newton’s Laws: o An object at rests tends to stay at rest, an object in motion tends to maintain the magnitude and direction of its velocity o
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