Review Chapter 1 Exam

Review Chapter 1 Exam - Chapter 1 Physical Concepts...

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Chapter 1 – Physical Concepts Important Terms Scientific notation provides a simple way to represent both large and small numbers with equal ease and a convenient basis for computations with such numbers, for conversions between metric measures, and for conversions of numbers to logarithms; involves translating any numbing into the product of a coefficient multiplied by some power of 10 Laws of exponents rules governing the computations of numbers represented in scientific notation Magnitude size Vectorial quantities quantities that have both magnitude and direction Vectors quantities that have both magnitude and direction Scalar quantities quantities that are characterized by magnitude alone Scalars quantities that are characterized by magnitude alone Units of measure required to facilitate the universal communication of a given quantity Dimensions dimensions of physical quantities cannot be combined in just any manner, their dimensions must be considered; length, time, and mass are dimensions of all physical quantities encountered in mechanics and acoustics Length MKS unit – meter; CGS unit – centimeter; determined by comparing the unknown quantity to a standard of measure, such as the meter; scalar quantity; represented by the letter L Time unit – second; scalar quantity; represented by the letter T Mass property of all matter; any given substance will have the same mass regardless of its location in the universe; a substance may be weightless, but it cannot be massless; scalar quantity; has the dimension M; measured by using a balance and comparing the unknown quantity to a standard measure; unit – gram
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Distance spatial separation between two points; dimension is one of length; denoted by L; scalar quantity Displacement when an object moves from one point to another it has been displaced; change in position, both magnitude and direction; vector quantity; measured in meters Area derived quantity involving the dimension of length; measured in units of square meters, m 2 in the MKS system and cm 2 in the CGS system; L*L=L 2 or the area Velocity derived quantity that involved combining the dimensions of length and time; rate at which an object moves from one point to another; vector Acceleration instant-to-instant changes in velocity; vector; MKS unit – m/s 2 ; CGS unit – cm/s 2 Force derived quantity; requisite to an understanding of work, energy, and power; measure of sound magnitude—sound pressure and acoustic intensity—are intimately related to force; may be defined as a push or a pull; equal to mass times acceleration; F=ma Newton’s laws 1. An object at rest tends to remain at rest; an object in motion tends to maintain the magnitude and direction of its velocity (unless acted upon by an extraneous force) 2. The net force acting upon an object in motion is equal to the product of its mass and the acceleration imparted to it by the force (in the same direction as the force) 3. The forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and directly
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Review Chapter 1 Exam - Chapter 1 Physical Concepts...

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