Medical Terminology Chp. 2

Medical Terminology Chp. 2 - Chapter 2: Body Structure,...

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Chapter 2: Body Structure, Color, and Oncology The structure of the human body falls into the following four categories: cells, tissues, organs, and systems. Each structure is a highly organized unit of smaller structures. o Cell- basic unit of all living things. The human body is composed of trillions of cells, which vary in size and shape according to function. CELL was named about 300 years ago by Robert Hooke. He named them cells because they reminded him of miniature prison cells. o Cell membrane- forms the boundary of the cell. o Cytoplasm- gel-like fluid inside the cell. o Nucleus- largest structure within the cell, usually spherical and centrally located. It contains chromosomes for cellular reproduction and is the control center of the cell. o Chromosomes- located in the nucleus of the cell. There are 46 chromosomes in all normal human cells, with the exception of mature sex cells, which have 23. o Genes- region within the chromosome. Each chromosome has several thousand genes that determine hereditary characteristics. o DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)- comprises each gene; is a chemical that regulates the activities of the cell. o Tissue- group of similar cells that performs a specific task. o Muscle tissue- composed of cells that have a special ability to contract, usually producing movement (by contracting and relaxing.) *skeletal tissue: VOLUNTARY o Nervous tissue- found in the nerves, spinal cord, and brain.
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It is responsible for coordinating and controlling body activities. o
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This note was uploaded on 05/18/2011 for the course ALLH 1013 taught by Professor None during the Fall '10 term at LSU.

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Medical Terminology Chp. 2 - Chapter 2: Body Structure,...

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