RUSSIAN HISTORY - II. Questions: 1. What are the most...

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II. Questions: 1. What are the most important changes in China’s foreign rela- tions during the nineteenth century? What are the reasons and con- sequences of such changes? For much of its history, China was un- der a Seclusion Policy, due to the rational that China produced all it needed and had abundant resources. Trades systems like the Co- hong System restricted foreign relations by limiting the number of for- eign merchants in China. Therefore, one of the first major changes was the opening of China to foreign trade on a regular basis, specific- ally, the importing of Opium from the British, which peaked in the 19th century. This led to government corruption, the suspension of foreign trade, and the Opium Wars (1839 - 1864). The consequences of the Opium Wars were significant: reopened foreign trade to China and ended the Cohong System, loss of territorial autonomy (extraterritorial- ity, concessions, and spheres of influence), treaties of inequality between China and other nations, Christian missionaries now allowed in China. Furthermore, the Sino-Japanese (1895) and Sino-French (1884) wars, resulting in the defeat of China by Japan, resulted in the loss of Chinese tributaries Vietnam, Korea, and Taiwan. The end of the 19th century saw China subjugated by foreign nations, with foreign trade access and economic and political influence the main issues. 2. Compare the Taiping and Boxer rebellions: What spiritual means were used to mobilize the rebels? How did the rebels treat the Qing government and the West? What were the most important con- sequences of the rebellions? The Taiping Rebellion was begun for mainly religious reasons, namely the advancement of Christianity, as it was helmed by Hong Xiuquan who believed himself to be the younger brother of Christ. Because of this, the rebels of the Taiping Rebellion were incredibly fanatical and dedicated to their cause. The Taiping rebels treated the Qing govern- ment as their enemy and the West as also their enemy due to their role in helping to put down their rebellion. The cause of the Taiping rebels fighting their government oppressors became a key rallying cry in Mao’s efforts to create a resistance to the Kuomintang. The Boxer Rebellion was focused on reversing the influence of the West in
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China, in particular their oppressive policies and trade agreements. The Boxer Rebellion was comprised of mainly Buddhist and Taoist be- liefs and as such was formed as an antithesis to the flood of Christian missionaries flooding into China from the west. They generally treated the Qing Government as allies and the west as enemies for obvious reasons. Though the rebellion was eventually quelled by the Coalition of 8 nations the European nations backed off of direct rule of China due to the rebellion. The Boxer Rebellion also led to Japan gaining in- ternational prestige for their role in helping to put down the rebellion. 3. Why did the Qing bureaucrats launch the Self-Strengthening
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2011 for the course HIS 39930 taught by Professor Ming during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas.

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RUSSIAN HISTORY - II. Questions: 1. What are the most...

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