EXAM 2 - The Great Terror 1. Historical Background i. Civil...

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The Great Terror 1. Historical Background i. Civil war, NEP and First 5 Year Plan ii. Kulaks and “Socially harmful elements” 1. Dekulakization: to working camps far out in Siberia or death 2. Socially harmful elements: homeless, gypsies, and other minor national- ities; embarrassment to Stalin’s vision of the Soviet Union 3. Workers: death to people who halt the industrialization; wreckers, steal- ing supplies b. The political police: GPU NKVD i. 1932, GPU incorporated into NKVD: starts to engage in great terror movements ii. Local officials didn’t have rights over NKVD 1. Local officials could have own trials but were much less severe; a fine at most c. Anti-Stalinist opposition: i. 16th Party Congress: “Deviationists” Capitulate 1. Stalin denounces the violence against peasants; goes back on what he said just a few years earlier [mainly to gain their trust] 2. Deviationists forced to capitulate [say there were wrong, ask for forgive- ness] ii. Trotskyists, Riutin Platform 1. Trotsky expelled from Russia in 1929 2. Attacks Stalinist leadership; betrayals of revolution a. Smuggled in his own newspaper but few were able to obtain it 3. Riutin Platform: issued by Riutin [Moscow official]; calls for Stalin re- moval from power; “Stalin will not and cannot voluntarily give up posi- tion so must give it up by force” 4. Stalin called for his arrest and execution [1932] iii. Stalin’s Paranoia? Nadezhda’s Suicide 1. Slowly becomes more paranoid; in 1932 [Nov 7; anniversary of revolu- tion] Nadezhda commits suicide; leaves will that denounces Stalin for the brutality of the collectivization campaign [year coincides with the fam- ine] 2. After this, Stalin becomes more paranoid 3. Stalin left to raise his 2 children iv. 17th Party Congress: Vote Suppressed [known as “Congress of Victors”] 1. Stalin gives speeches of great success of collectivization and industrializ- ation campaign 2. At these, get ready to vote for the next CC; choice was to cross out one name or else all would be approved; ballets showed that close to 300 people crossed out Stalin’s name; Stalin ordered ballets to be destroyed and 3 crossed on Kirov [Leningrad Party Secretary] d. Kirov Assassination: Conspiracy or Lone Gunman? i. Seen as Stalin’s likely successor; gives speeches at 17th congress that revered Stalin ; talk of people wanted to put him up instead of Stalin behind closed doors; had more element of popularity and with the people, although Kirov was shown to fully support Stalin ii. Dec 1, 1934: party member Leonid Nikolaev shoots Kirov point blank at party headquarters in Leningrad
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iii. Nikolaev had problems with party; but did Stalin set this up? iv. Believed by many to be recruited by NKVD by Stalin to assassinate Nikolaev; suspicious that Kirov’s bodyguard was around the corner to not really see it; Kirov was known to not like his bodyguard close to him; bodyguard died in car crash the next day v. Stalin races to Leningrad and personal interrogates Nikolaev and issues:
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2011 for the course HIS 39930 taught by Professor Ming during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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EXAM 2 - The Great Terror 1. Historical Background i. Civil...

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