AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA_APPLICATIONS

AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA_APPLICATIONS - APPLICATIONS OF AQUEOUS...

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APPLICATIONS OF AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA BUFFER SOLUTIONS These are solutions that resist changes in pH when small amounts of strong acids or strong basses are added. Buffer solutions contain reasonable amounts of a conjugate acid/base pair. The common ion effect is what causes a solution to exhibit “buffering” effect. SOLUTIONS OF ACIDS AND BASES EXHIBITING “COMMON ION EFFECT” There are two types: Solution of a weak acid that contains not only the weak acid but also its conjugate base from a different source than the acid. Solution of a weak base that contains not only the weak base but also its conjugate acid from a different source than the base. Examples: Weak acid/soluble salt of the weak acid: HF/NaF, CH 3 COOH/CH 3 COOK. Weak base/soluble salt of the weak base: NH 3 /NH 4 NO 3 , CH 3 NH 2 /CH 3 NH 3 Cl. So, what do we mean by “the common ion effect”? Let’s consider the HF/NaF solution: HF + H 2 O H 3 O + (aq)+ F - (aq) NaF(aq) Na+(aq) + F - (aq)
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Both HF and NaF produce F - . As the concentration of the fluoride ion increases due to salt dissociation, the acid ionization (which is a reversible reaction) shifts to
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AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA_APPLICATIONS - APPLICATIONS OF AQUEOUS...

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