EXAM 2 - The Great Terror Historical Background Civil war,...

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The Great Terror Historical Background Civil war, NEP and First 5 Year Plan Kulaks and “Socially harmful elements” Dekulakization: to working camps far out in Siberia or death Socially harmful elements: homeless, gypsies, and other minor nationalities; embarrassment to Stalin’s vision of the Soviet Union Workers: death to people who halt the industrialization; wreckers, stealing supplies The political police: GPU NKVD 1932, GPU incorporated into NKVD: starts to engage in great terror movements Local officials didn’t have rights over NKVD Local officials could have own trials but were much less severe; a fine at most Anti-Stalinist opposition: 16 th Party Congress: “Deviationists” Capitulate Stalin denounces the violence against peasants; goes back on what he said just a few years earlier [mainly to gain their trust] Deviationists forced to capitulate [say there were wrong, ask for forgiveness] Trotskyists, Riutin Platform Trotsky expelled from Russia in 1929 Attacks Stalinist leadership; betrayals of revolution Smuggled in his own newspaper but few were able to obtain it Riutin Platform: issued by Riutin [Moscow official]; calls for Stalin removal from power; “Stalin will not and cannot voluntarily give up position so must give it up by force” Stalin called for his arrest and execution [1932] Stalin’s Paranoia? Nadezhda’s Suicide Slowly becomes more paranoid; in 1932 [Nov 7; anniversary of revolution] Nadezhda commits suicide; leaves will that denounces Stalin for the brutality of the collectivization campaign [year coincides with the famine] After this, Stalin becomes more paranoid Stalin left to raise his 2 children 17 th Party Congress: Vote Suppressed [known as “Congress of Victors”] Stalin gives speeches of great success of collectivization and industrialization campaign At these, get ready to vote for the next CC; choice was to cross out one name or else all would be approved; ballets showed that close to 300 people crossed out Stalin’s name; Stalin ordered ballets to be destroyed and 3 crossed on Kirov [Leningrad Party Secretary] Kirov Assassination: Conspiracy or Lone Gunman? Seen as Stalin’s likely successor; gives speeches at 17 th congress that revered Stalin ; talk of people wanted to put him up instead of Stalin behind closed doors; had more element of popularity and with the people, although Kirov was shown to fully support Stalin Dec 1, 1934: party member Leonid Nikolaev shoots Kirov point blank at party headquarters in Leningrad Nikolaev had problems with party; but did Stalin set this up? Believed by many to be recruited by NKVD by Stalin to assassinate Nikolaev; suspicious that Kirov’s bodyguard was around the corner to not really see it; Kirov was known to not like his bodyguard close to him; bodyguard died in car crash the next day Stalin races to Leningrad and personal interrogates Nikolaev and issues: “emergency Decrees”: Stalin called for speedy investigations not to last more than 10 days in
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2011 for the course CHEM 51615 taught by Professor Fatima during the Spring '11 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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EXAM 2 - The Great Terror Historical Background Civil war,...

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