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Unformatted text preview: 1-Dynastic cycle:The 4-stage cycle that characterizes the rise and fall of Chinese dynasties. In the first stage, land is reclaimed, seeds/farming tools are provided, and a small, efficient government with light taxation made people very happy for about 50-60 years because the founding rulers were familiar with what caused the previous dynasty to fail. Stage two is population growth, expansion of cities and urbanization which caused the size of the government to begin to grow in order to deal with the population. Stage three is characterized by the expansion of the government to control the people and people becoming wealthier. When this happens, land becomes more concentrated and peasant farmers become dissatisfied. Stage four involves government corruption and inefficiency, dislocation of the landless, social instability, rebellions and foreign invaders, devastation of the economy, and the population being wiped out. 2-Sinocentrism:Sinocentrism refers to the Chinese peoples view of their culture as the first and only legitimate civilization. Viewing China in this way can partially be attributed to the fact that in the 1600s, European missionaries in China produced maps for the emperor that placed China in the center of the earth in order to persuade the emperor. As a result of these maps, the Chinese developed the concept of China as the middle kingdom. Sinocentrism has played an important role in Chinese political history because this view has led the Chinese to feel justified in ruling people living on the outskirts of China proper, including the Tibetans and the Taiwanese. They believe that civilizations such as these are simply rooted in Chinese history and not legitimate civilizations of their own.3-Huangdi (Yellow Emperor):Huangdi is regarded as the forefather of the Chinese nation, the mythical first Emperor of China that the Chinese all agree upon .He was called Huangdi because Huang in Chinese means yellow symbolizing the yellow earth and Di means emperor. He supposedly ruled for a hundred years. No one knows for sure where Huangdi came from, but everything we know about him came from the writing of the Han or Zhou dynasty. It is said that he might have lived around the Yellow River area, where he and his tribes resided. Regardless of nationality, descendent, or origin, all Chinese accept the Yellow Emperor as their earliest ancestor and celebrate an annual sacrificial ritual devoted entirely to this Emperor.4-Oracle-bone inscriptions:were shoulder bones of animals, usually buffalo or ritually sacrificed animals, used by diviners in the Emperors' courts in order to seek advice from the ancestors. The diviners would take the bone and put a hot wire inside and it would cause bones on the cracks and the diviner would interpret the cracks and write these interpretations upon the bone itself. After these bones were found near Aanyang, they revealed to archeologist the way the royal family lived (a very lavish life style) and these...
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2011 for the course CHEM 51615 taught by Professor Fatima during the Spring '11 term at University of Texas at Austin.
- Spring '11