IDSSSSSSSSSSSS - Introduction to China Mid-term exam Study...

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Introduction to China Mid-term exam Study Guide Please note : what follows is a list of important terms from which five IDs will be included in the midterm exam. In addition, you should check out the two files of discussion questions for classes on Feb. 8th and March 8th, from which five short- answer questions will be included in the test as well. IDs - Should be a paragraph. Dynastic cycle o Stage 1: Land reclamation; light taxation; efficient government o Stage 2: population growth; economic expansion; urbanization o Stage 3: expanded government; land concentration; increased tax burden o Stage 4: government corruption and inefficiency: dislocation of landless; social instability; rebellion, foreign invasion; economy devastated; population wiped out o Implications: “Revolution” (geming) as a tradition; “Mandate of Heaven” (tianming)—source of legitimacy; The Communist Revolution and the People’s Republic o Sinocentrism: China as the center of the world (Middle Kingdom) & the world’s only civilized land (due to geographic isolation and advanced culture/economy) Huangdi (Yellow Emperor) o Forefather of Chinese civilization, supposedly lived 380 years. Head of a Chinese tribe in Northern China. Oracle-bone inscriptions o Oracle-bones dated back to the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 B.C.E.). “Questions and answers inscribed on the bones reveal that the Shang aristocracy lived a superior life, fighting in horse chariots, hunting for sport, performing rites and ceremonies, while served by scribes and artisans and supported by the agriculture o “The Shang king was served by diviners who handled the writing system and took the auspices by applying a hot point to create cracks in animal shoulder blades, interpreting these cracks as the advice of the ancestors, and inscribing the results on the bones.” o preserved the archaic characters and history of the Shang Dynasty, only “written record” from this period; led archaeologists to the excavation of the last Shang capital at Anyang
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o Well-field system o Western Zhou- feudal land distribution method) ALL fields owned by aristocrats, but private field produce is entirely the farmer’s; communal fields worked by all eight families- this produce goes to aristocrats (eventually to the king as tribute) The First Emperor of the Qin o 259-210 B.C., first time the title “emperor” is used. In the 1970s, nearly 8,000 terracotta soldier sculptures were uncovered in Shaanxi province, which were dated back to the time of the first emperor. Emperor Wu of the Han (r. 140-86 BC): o Administrative centralization Limiting princedoms and marquisates Rule of avoidance Creating “inner court” of eunuchs Circuit inspectors o Confucianism as state ideology Dong Zhongshu (179-104 BC): Han Dynasty scholar. He is traditionally associated with the promotion of Confucianism as the official ideology of the Chinese imperial state. Cosmology: “oneness of man and heaven” (study of the structure and changes in
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2011 for the course CHEM 51615 taught by Professor Fatima during the Spring '11 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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IDSSSSSSSSSSSS - Introduction to China Mid-term exam Study...

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