NOTES FOR TEST 1 - Opposition: Russia employs an autocratic...

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Opposition: Russia employs an autocratic form of government…the Czar is the supreme leader(Peter the Great being the prominent one). He built the St. Petersburg capitol. Advantages: no gridlock as with congress…faster decisions, plus national interest if foremost in all instances. Disadvantages: possibilities of corruption, you don’t get to choose leader Religion: Multinational orthodox (main one) Enormous disparity socially (tiny elite). About 1.5% were nobles with enormous wealth, however, they were reliant on the autocracy for that wealth. Had little interest in the productivity of the Russian economy. They did greatly support the arts and literature. Had little understanding of the mass of the population. Most people were very poor surfs that were basically the property of these elite (probably around 80%). These people had no legal rights whatsoever. Spent part of the week on their own land and part on the elite land. Their elders led these villages that they lived in. Communal Agriculture: very large part of surf life. Each household would have some of the good land near the village or river and some that was not so good. Household land divided into strips. Re-divided every so often. Very inefficient as there was no need to invest in the land that they had, as it would not be theirs soon, etc. They never had any modern equipment. In February of 1861 – the peasants were emancipated. This was one of the declarations of the czar and it was within his power to do so of course. He, however, did not give them what they wanted…land. The landlords still got half of the land the surfs had worked for a very long time, and they had to pay for the land that they received. 1/3 of the peasants were illiterate and this caused problems. They felt a great sense of injustice and land hunger, believing that land was the answer to their poverty problems. State plays a central role in industrialization. Rail road is key…Russia becomes crossed by these rails. Trans-Siberian railroad was an incredible feat. There was a middle class emerging. This was the first workers revolution in history. @ St. Petersburg & Moscow. Both had lots of key factories and workers. Peasants began migrating to cities and bringing discontent with them… Labor aristocrats came about… Constitutional Experiment: Events following 1905 revolution Jan 1905 = “Bloody Sunday” … after this, Tsar conceded on requests Key = Duma (elected national body)… the Tsar allowed this and planned to work with them in running the country. He allowed the people to elect this body. Russia was moving towards a Western style democracy. Bulschavicks & SR’s (sucessors of populace) -would boycott election of Duma The voting happened according to class; 1 landowner vote = 3.5 townsmen, 15 peasants, & 45 workers.
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-it was a weighted and fixed system. -peasants were still 40% of the voting power. Got more representation… still. Idea of
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NOTES FOR TEST 1 - Opposition: Russia employs an autocratic...

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