RUSSIAN EXAM 2 - Reds and whites using violence Bout...

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Reds and whites using violence Bout ¼ million people killed by political police during the civil war Political police going on before Stalin – legacy that precedes Stalin Terror used after the civil war on the collective campaign. Law of Aug 8, 1932… anyone stealing from collectives to be arrested. Real opposition to Stalin besides disagreement with his policies?. .. up to debate. Mass operations …groups rounded up and sent off. Ex= Kulaks. Homeless and living on the streets shipped off also. Sweeps. Rounding up and sending off to no one knows where. Also gypsies and other nationality groups. CHECK changes name to GPU in 1920’s. then to the NKVD… started engaging in the above operations. NKVD in the 1930’s. then in the 1950’s…the KGB. 1920’s – local party officials had no authority over political police in their area. Statewide ordeal. ‘31/’32 Stalin is building power Opposition emerging – 16 th party congress…some upset by collectivization. Some having doubts about Stalin and how he is using power. He blamed officers for what he ordered them to do sometimes. Troski – had been expelled from country in 1929 -he could write as those inside country couldn’t…attacking Stalin -“the bulletin of the opposition” – he wrote news paper that was smuggled into Russia (not to reach many people)…did get to Stalin Meschoviks also smuggled in papers…very few getting to read Deviationists…forced to capitulate in these congressed. Apologize etc in congress. Martemian Riutin – Moscow party official wrote manifesto…. Calls for Stalin’s removal. Extensive attack on Stalin himself. Argued Stalin would not and could not give up position and should be removed by force. Circulates. Stalin calls for his arrest and execution for these political views. His life, however, was spared. Stalin growing paranoia from all of this. Nov 7, 1932 – Stalin’s second wife commits suicide. Leaves will denouncing Stalin for collectivization and brutality implemented therefore. Leaves Stalin with 2 kids. 17 th party congress in 1930’s. – would stand up there and speak of great successes and how bright the future was. Vote for next congress. Ballot for 1,000 some-odd people to vote for. Cross out names didn’t want. Close to 300 people crossed out Stalin’s name… he had the ballots destroyed. Sergei Kirov – very few scratched off his name. Leningrad Party Secretary. Against some of Stalin’s ideals. Would most likely be successor of Stalin. Talk if replace Stalin… could replace with him. Much more charismatic than Stalin…popular, etc. yet close friend of Stlain…someone Stalin thought he could trust and who had supported Stalin all the way. No history of anti-Stalinism Dec 1934 – Kirov is walking to office and a party member… Nikulaev shoots and kills him. Lots of speculation about this event. Took place in party headquarters. No one knows if Stalin orchestrated or not.
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2011 for the course CHEM 51615 taught by Professor Fatima during the Spring '11 term at University of Texas.

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RUSSIAN EXAM 2 - Reds and whites using violence Bout...

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