Reproduction and Chromosome Transmission

To prepare human chromosomes for viewing figure 32a

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Unformatted text preview: To prepare human chromosomes for viewing (Figure 3.2a): Somatic cells are obtained from the blood. The cells are exposed to drugs that stimulate cell division. The cells are placed in a hypotonic solution that makes them swell, but not burst. The cells are exposed to a fixative to prevent movement. A dye that binds to the chromosomes is applied to the cells. The cells are then placed on a microscope slide and viewed (Figure 3.2b). At this point the chromosomes may be photographed, and a karyotype prepared to aide in the analysis of the chromosomes (Figure 3.2c). 1 Eukaryotic chromosomes are inherited in sets. The majority of eukaryotic species are diploid; thus, all somatic cells have two sets of chromosomes. Pairs of the same chromosomes are called homologues. Homologous chromosomes are very similar in sequence and have the same genes, but may contain different alleles of those genes (Figure 3.3). Sex chromosomes are not homologous. Genes on homologous chromosomes have the same location, or loci....
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