Reproduction and Chromosome Transmission

Reproduction and Chromosome Transmission - BIO 325 Genetics...

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BIO 325 – Genetics Lectures 3 and 4 Reproduction and Chromosome Transmission
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Before we set our hearts too much upon anything, let us examine how happy they are who already possess it. Francois de La Rochefoucauld
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General Features of Chromosomes
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The cellular structures that contain the genetic material are the chromosomes. The structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes differs considerably, although both are comprised of long chains of DNA. General Features of Chromosomes
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Prokaryotic cells, such as the bacteria, typically have a single, circular chromosome located within an area of the cell called the nucleoid. General Features of Chromosomes
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General Features of Chromosomes Eukaryotic cells (fungi, protists, plants, animals) contain internal compartments (organelles), which have specialized functions.
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General Features of Chromosomes The nucleus of eukaryotic cells contains the majority of the DNA. Other organelles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, contain small amounts of DNA.
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General Features of Chromosomes The field of cytogenetics involves the microscopic examination of chromosomes.
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General Features of Chromosomes The field of cytogenetics involves the microscopic examination of chromosomes. In actively dividing cells, the chromosomes are condensed, allowing an easier examination of their structure and number.
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General Features of Chromosomes To prepare human chromosomes for viewing:
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General Features of Chromosomes To prepare human chromosomes for viewing: Somatic cells are obtained from the blood.
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General Features of Chromosomes To prepare human chromosomes for viewing: Somatic cells are obtained from the blood. The cells are exposed to drugs that stimulate cell division.
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General Features of Chromosomes To prepare human chromosomes for viewing: Somatic cells are obtained from the blood. The cells are exposed to drugs that stimulate cell division. The cells are placed in a hypotonic solution that makes them swell, but not burst.
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General Features of Chromosomes To prepare human chromosomes for viewing: Somatic cells are obtained from the blood. The cells are exposed to drugs that stimulate cell division. The cells are placed in a hypotonic solution that makes them swell, but not burst. The cells are exposed to a fixative to prevent movement.
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General Features of Chromosomes To prepare human chromosomes for viewing: Somatic cells are obtained from the blood. The cells are exposed to drugs that stimulate cell division. The cells are placed in a hypotonic solution that makes them swell, but not burst. The cells are exposed to a fixative to prevent movement. A dye that binds to the chromosomes is applied to the cells.
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General Features of Chromosomes The cells are then placed on a microscope slide and viewed.
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General Features of Chromosomes The cells are then placed on a microscope slide and viewed.
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