4-9-Intelligence2 - Intelligence II Intelligence II...

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1 Intelligence II Intelligence II Reliability & Validity of Intelligence Testing • Extremes of Intelligence • Approaches to Intelligence • Intelligence: Nature or Nurture? Reliability & Validity in Intelligence Testing Reliability –IQ tests are exceptional reliable • Reliability coefficients in the 0.9’s –Issues of motivation and anxiety
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2 Reliability & Validity in Intelligence Testing Validity – IQ scores are valid indicators of academic/verbal intelligence, not intelligence in a truly general sense Correlations : – .40s-.50s with school success – .60s-.80s with number of years in school Intelligence II • Reliability & Validity of Intelligence Testing Extremes of Intelligence • Approaches to Intelligence • Intelligence: Nature or Nurture? Mental Retardation Mental Retardation – sub-average intellectual and adaptive functioning, originating before the age of 18 • IQ scores of approximately 70 and below – Flexible cutoff scores • 2-3% of school age population diagnosed • Subjective methods of measuring everyday functioning 4 levels: mild, moderate, severe, profound
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3 Mental Retardation Mental Retardation Mental Retardation • Causes of mental retardation include: Organic (Genetic) Causes Down syndrome - extra 21st chromosome Hydrocephaly – accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the skull destroys brain tissue Many more • Fewer than 25% of cases have clear organic cause Unknown Origin • Environmental issues • Milder forms of mental retardation – Damage incurred during birth process – Head injury – In utero exposure to alcohol or cocaine
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4 • Severe forms of retardation are distributed evenly across social classes • Suggests that severe retardation is the product of biological aberrations • Mild retardation is elevated in lower social classes • suggests that mild retardation is largely a product of unfavorable environmental factors Giftedness • Gifted individuals (in particular children) are typically identified as those in the upper 2-3% of the IQ distribution IQ 130 • Identification of the gifted shouldn’t be based entirely on test scores • Attributes such as creativity, leadership, or special talent should also be taken into account • BUT! Giftedness is typically identified only through
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4-9-Intelligence2 - Intelligence II Intelligence II...

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