3-10-CognitiveDevelopment1 - Cognitive Development...

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1 Cognitive Development Cognitive Development Physical Growth & Innate Capacities Piaget’s Stage Theory of Cognitive Development Beyond Piaget Language Development Physical Growth Body Size – Human growth rate less than most animals – Growth tends to come in spurts – Requires dependency on parents – On average, girls develop faster than boys Height gains for boys and girls from birth to 19 yrs Human growth rate is much slower than other mammals
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2 Physical Growth Brain Size In most mammals, the newborn’s brain is nearly adult size Human brain starts out at 23% of adult size Growth of human brain also in spurts What contributes to brain growth spurts Increasing dendritic growth barb2right formation of more synapses Increasing myelinization Human growth rate is much slower than other mammals newborn 3-months 15-months Innate Response Capacities Infants possess a number of vital reflexes Rooting reflex – when cheek touched, infant turns head and opens mouth Sucking reflex – rhythmic sucking when stimulation 3-4 cm inside mouth Innate Response Capacities Infants possess a number of vital reflexes Grasp reflex – when object touches palm, infant closes fist tightly around object Orienting reflex – infants pay more attention to novel stimuli than those to which they have habituated
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3 Innate Response Capacities Infants lack gross and fine motor control to support own movements beyond kicking and flailing Control develops over time 1. Reaching (16-20 weeks) 2. Whole hand grasp (20-24 weeks) 3. Differential use of thumb and fingers (24-36 weeks) 4. Pincher grasps (after 36 weeks) Infants are very near- sighted and cannot see things very clearly Distinguish between light and dark contrasts (e.g., hair line) Discriminate color Can track slowly moving stimulus Innate Perceptual Abilities Audition Infants can discriminate between a variety of sounds Innate Perceptual Abilities Taste Infants are very sensitive to tastes
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4 Cognitive Development Physical Growth & Innate Capacities Piaget’s Stage Theory of
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