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ISB204_F10_Lecture09p - Last Class Last Class • Blood...

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Unformatted text preview: Last Class Last Class • Blood Chapter 12 Chapter 12 • The Circulatory System The Cardiovascular System The Cardiovascular System Consists of the Blood Vessels and the Heart The Blood Vessels Conduct The Blood Vessels Conduct Blood in Continuous Loops • Away from the heart • To the heart – Artery, arterioles, capillaries – Capillaries, venules, veins Capillaries are sites of exchange Capillaries are sites of exchange with body cells Veins return blood to the heart Veins return blood to the heart The Heart Is a Muscular Pump The Heart Is a Muscular Pump • Blood flows through the heart in two circuits systemic Pulmonary Coronary circulation Coronary circulation serves the heart muscle The Heart Is a Muscular Pump The Heart Is a Muscular Pump “lub” “dub” The cardiac cycle is the The cardiac cycle is the sequence of heart muscle contraction and relaxation Heartbeat = relatation & contraction Contraction = systole Relaxation = diastole The rhythmic contraction of The rhythmic contraction of the heart is due to its internal conduction system Cells of the heart are directly and electrically coupled = Intercalated disks An electrocardiogram An electrocardiogram is a recording of the electrical activities of the heart Ventricular repolarization The Heart Is a Muscular Pump The Heart Is a Muscular Pump • Blood pressure is the force blood exerts against blood vessel walls Cardiovascular Disease Is a Cardiovascular Disease Is a Major Killer in the United States • • High blood pressure can kill without producing symptoms Atherosclerosis is a buildup of lipids in the artery walls Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular Disease • Coronary artery disease is atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries Heart Attack Is the Death of Heart Attack Is the Death of Heart Muscle Treat your heart right Treat your heart right • • • • • 72 beats per minute 4,320 beats per hour 103,680 beats per day 37,843,200 beats per year 2,724,710,400 beats per lifespan (72) Organ Transplantation Organ Transplantation • Human to human – Organ transplantation is limited by the number of cadaveric human donor organs that become available. – Survival has steadily increased over last 15 years – Kidney, Liver, and Heart • 80­90% for one year, 70% for 5­year survival Organ transplantation Organ transplantation • 108,593 (97,493) (93,009) (89,471) people are waiting list candidates for solid organ transplantation with UNOS – United network for organ sharing • January­June 2010 • 19 patients die every day waiting for an organ – 14,139 (14,225) (14,699) (14,010) transplants – 7,136 (7,173) (7,465) (7,243) donors • Organ Transplantation Organ Transplantation Waiting list as of September 15th 2010 – 86,102 (81,694)(77,297)(67,810)(67,275) Kidney – 15,993 (15,893)(17,230)(17,100)(17,992) Liver Lung – 1,806 (1,872)(2,359)(2,875)(3,381) Heart – 3,152(2,874)(2,636)(2,854)(3,109) – 2,198(2,178)(2,382)(2,423)(2,533) Kidney/pancreas Pancreas – 1,435(1,489)(1,667)(1,753)(1,704) Intestine – 252(229)(218)(232)(187) Heart/Lung – 77(83)(115)(147)(157) • Organ transplant wait list continues to Problem Problem • increase at a rate that is higher than the rate of the number of human organs that become available. Healthy living versus health dead – Ideal, obtain organ from healthy live donor • Kidney – Brain dead patients • the process of brain death causes significant trauma to the other organs of the body especially the heart Solution Solution • Xenotransplantation – transplantation of organs from one species to another – transplantation of animal organs into humans • pig­human • with the pig, can anesthetize it, and remove the organs under perfect conditions and thus avoiding the traumatic events of brain death Bridges to Transplantation Bridges to Transplantation • End­stage heart failure (ESHF) • Cardiac Assist Device (CAD) Problems Problems • • • • Bulky External control source Electrical requirements Mechanical wear – Exposed to environment Observations Observations • Current Technology is not conducive for permanent implantation Hypothesis Hypothesis • It should be possible to levitate an • impeller using magnets Use permanent maglev to levitate the impeller Results Results Results Results Conclusion Conclusion • Works • No mechanical wear The Lymphatic System The Lymphatic System Functions in the Circulatory and Immune Systems ...
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