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product layout and balancing technique

product layout and balancing technique - Because all...

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Because all operations are geared to the flow of the product in product layout, the central problem in design is to divide the necessary operations in such a way that smooth flow results. We attempt to assign the work in a manner, which minimizes the number of work stations and labor and other resources to perform all the operations. This attempt will therefore minimize idle time. Balance refers to the equality of output at each stage in the sequence of a line. If the outputs are all equal, balance is assumed to be perfect, and if they are unequal, we know that the maximum possible output for the line as a whole will be determined by the slowest operation in the line, the bottleneck operation. Thus, where imbalance exists, we have idle capacity in all other operations except the bottleneck operation. Given a solution to the line balance problem for a particular application, the necessary detailed layout of lines and support areas, aisles, service area, and so on, must follow. The line balance problem Line balancing is the process of distributing the workloads evenly, that is to group and/or subdivide activities or tasks in such a way that all job stations have an equal amount of work to do in terms of the time required to perform the tasks. The idea is to obtain the desired level of output with the minimum input of labor and other resources. In order to start with the greatest flexibility in alternatives to achieve balance for a specified rate of output , we need to know the performance times for the smallest possible whole units of activity called tasks, such as tightening a nut, attaching a wire, or soldering a wire. We also need to know the technological constraints, which may require certain sequences of these activities. Simple examples of these technological sequence constraints might be: a hole must be drilled before it can be reamed, before it can be tapped; a washer must go on the bolt before the nut; and wheel nuts must be assembled and tightened before the hub cap is placed on. But not all tasks have restricted sequences, and this represents the remaining flexibility. Figure 5 shows a network drawing of a precedence relationship given in Table 1. Possible reasons1 Work tasks sequence Task Immediate predecessor Task time A - .3 B a .9 C
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a 1 D b,c .4 E d .8 FIGURE 5 Network The network suggests, for example, that task b cannot be started until a is completed; b must be done before d can be started; and b can occur either before or after c. The figures below the nodes give the average task performance time in minutes. Consider now the assignment of the tasks to work stations. The total time available at each station depends on the required output of
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