3.herat - Cardiovascular physiology 1 the heart Outline The...

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Cardiovascular physiology 1: the heart Outline The heart as a pump 1) cardiomyocytes and cardiac muscle 2) blood flow through the heart 3) pacemakers and the conduction system 4) cardiac muscle action potentials 5) cardiac cycle 6) regulation of cardiac output: heart rate and stroke volume 7) exercise and the heart HKin 191 1
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Cardiovascular physiology I: the heart Key concepts How and when the heart contracts How and why cardiac muscle differs from skeletal muscle How heart rate is set: action potentials and the role of the pacemaker The cardiac conduction system and the spread of pacemaker potentials Cardiac muscle cell action potentials and contraction Getting the blood in and out The cardiac cycle Controlling the heart (CO = HR x SV) Heart rate and contractility HKin 191 2 Neurons and hormones, chemicals and drugs
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Cardiovascular physiology 1: the heart The standard anatomical position Dextrocardia: situs inversus : HKin 191 3
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1) Cardiomyocytes and cardiac muscle Cardiac muscle is similar to skeletal muscle but: 1) 2) 3) 4) HKin 191 4 5)
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1) Cardiomyocytes and cardiac muscle Low resistance pore “Connexon” Proteins (6 on each side of membrane) HKin 191 5
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1) Cardiomyocytes and cardiac muscle - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Cardiac muscle is similar to skeletal muscle but: ____ mV free flow of ions through pore in connexons cytosol _____ mV - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + electrical potential maintained by _______________________ gap junctions are _________ more conductive than cell membrane _____________ HKin 191 6 ____________ _______
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2) Blood flow through the heart Mammalian heart has ___ chambers: Left side: RA LA Right side: RV LV HKin 191 7
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Systemic drainage (BODY) 2) Blood flow through the heart b2right right atrium b2right tricuspid valve (TV) b2right right ventricle b2right pulmonary valve (PV) b2right b2right pulmonary trunk b2right pulmonary arteries b2right pulmonary circulation b2right lungs b2right To pulmonary To systemic RA LA Pulmonary circulation circulation drainage Systemic drainage av pv tv bv Pulmonary drainage (LUNGS) b2right pulmonary veins b2right left auricle/atrium b2right bicuspid valve (BV) b2right left ventricle RV LV HKin 191 8 b2right aortic valve (AV) b2right arch of aorta b2right systemic circulation b2right
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3) Pacemakers and the cardiac conduction system The basics: • cardiac muscle contain ___________ • pacemakers are ____________________________ • pacemakers set ___________________________________ HKin 191 9 Heart will beat in the absence of:
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3) Pacemakers and the cardiac conduction system Pacemakers: how do they work? (1 st of 5 points) Extracellular Intercellular Cell membrane 1) ___________ resting potential: -60 mV (interstitial fluid) Na + 145 mM K + 4 mM (cytoplasm) Na + 10 mM K + 135 mM Ion imbalance creates charge imbalance across the semi-permeable cell Ca ++ 2 mM Ca ++ ~0 mM membrane Remember : Diffusion occurs down concentration gradients HKin 191 10
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3) Pacemakers and the cardiac conduction system Pacemakers: how do they work? (2nd of 5 points) 2) ____________________________________ Na + K + Na + K + Current flow -60 mV Ca ++ Ca ++ HKin 191 11
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3) Pacemakers and the cardiac conduction system HKin 191 12
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3) Pacemakers and the cardiac conduction system Na + Na + K + Ca ++ K + Ca ++ Current flow ___ mV Na + K + Na + K + Current flow ___ mV Ca ++ Ca ++ HKin 191 13
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3) Pacemakers and the cardiac conduction system -40mV HKin 191 14
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