6.renal

6.renal - Section 4: Renal physiology Outline 1) Kidney...

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HKin 191 1 Outline 1) Kidney function 2) The nephrons • glomerular filtration • tubular reabsorption • tubular secretion 3) Renal regulation • fluid balance: controlling input and output • controlling glomerular filtration rate (GFR) intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms • four hormones: ADH, AT2, aldosterone, ANP Section 4: Renal physiology 4) exercise and renal function
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HKin 191 2 Key concepts Primary kidney function: filtration • three requirements: inflow/outflow, filter, pressure Nephrons and GFR: • fluid out (filtration) - fluid in (reabsorption) = urine output Water balance: input and output are controlled • how hydration is monitored and regulated • roles of neurons and hormones Maintaining water and salt (ion) balance: roles of negative feedback • salts follow water, water follows salts; pumps and diffusion Immersion diuresis: why and how it happens Section 4: Renal physiology
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HKin 191 3 Outline 1) Kidney function Section 4: Renal physiology
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HKin 191 4 1: Kidney function Kidneys: three-function organs 1) _____________________ eliminates: 2) ______________________ controls: blood salt/ion blood pH blood volume/pressure blood osmolarity (total solute concentration in blood) blood glucose 3) _______________________ produces: 1) 2)
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HKin 191 5 1: Kidney function Basically, the kidney is a smart filter What do you require to filter a fluid? 1) a semi-permeable (or selective) membrane 2) two flow systems: fluid in, fluid out system waste out system 3) pressure or concentration gradient The nephron
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HKin 191 6 Outline 1) Kidney function 2) The nephrons • glomerular filtration • tubular reabsorption • tubular secretion Section 4: Renal physiology
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HKin 191 7 The nephron: a filtering system 2: Nephrons • nephrons are the functional filtering units of the kidney • 2 million nephrons/per kidney glomerular capsule renal tubule peritubular capillary renal corpuscle figure 26.4 figure 26.7
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HKin 191 8 Nephron filtering: three steps 1) _________________________ • water and solutes b glomerular capsule b renal tubule 2) _________________________ • 99% water b blood; • useful solutes b blood 3) _________________________ • wastes, drugs, salts b tubule (and out of body) 2: Nephrons 1 2 3
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HKin 191 9 2: Nephrons 1) 2) 3) Nephrons: glomerular filtration Why this structure Why not this structure?
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HKin 191 10 Nephrons: glomerular filtration • blood flow through kidneys: 1.0 liters/min (~ 1400 liters/day) • about 150 - 180 liters/day of fluid crosses the filtration membrane ( i.e. becomes glomerular filtrate) • GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate) Male: 97 to 137 ml/min. Female: 88 to 128 ml/min 2: Nephrons
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HKin 191 11 2: Nephrons Figure 26.8 Nephrons: glomerular filtration Filtration membrane: the interface between the glomererulus and the inside surface of the capsule 1 2 3 capillary endothelial cells slit membrane (between pedicels) basement membrane
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HKin 191 12 2: Nephrons blood capsular space
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This note was uploaded on 05/21/2011 for the course BHK 191 taught by Professor Jim during the Spring '11 term at UBC.