190 labmanual - HUMAN KINETICS 190 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY...

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HUMAN KINETICS 190 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I Student Lab Manual
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TERMINOLOGY Positions : Anatomical position is one in which a person is upright, with the arms and forearms hanging at the sides, palms forward and thumbs directed laterally, eyes focused directly forward and the feet together. All movements are relative to the anatomical position. Sagittal plane : divides the body longitudinally into right and left portions Midsagittal plane : divides the body longitudinally through the midline into equal right and left portions Frontal (or Coronal) plane : divides the body longitudinally into anterior and posterior portions Transverse (or Horizontal) plane : divides the body into superior and inferior portions Anterior (Ventral) : is towards the front Posterior (Dorsal) : is towards the back Lateral : is away from the midline Medial : is towards the midline Superior (Cranial) : is upper or above something else; toward the head Inferior (Caudal) : is lower or below something else; away from the head Proximal : is closer to the trunk or center of the body than something else Distal : is further from the trunk or center of the body than something else Superficial (External) : is towards the body surface Deep (Internal) : is away from the body surface Visceral : related to internal organs Parietal: related to body walls
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Bone Markings : Projections that are sites of muscle attachment Process : any marked bony prominance (coronoid process) Spine : a sharp, slender process (spine of the scapula) Trochanter : a massive process found only on the femur (“greater trochanter”) Tubercle : a small rounded process (greater tubercle of the humerus) Tuberosity : a large roughened process (ischial tuberosity) Epicondyle : a projection above a condyle (medial epicondyle of the humerus) Crest : a narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent (iliac crest) Line : a narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest (gluteal line) Projections that help to form joints Head : round bony expansion carried on a narrow neck (head of radius) Facet : smooth, nearly flat articular surface (facets on the vertebrae) Condyle : rounded articular knob (external occipital condyle) Ramus : armlike bar of bone (ramus of the mandible) Depressions that help to form joints Fossa : shallow, basinlike depression (mandibular fossa of temporal bone) Fovea : a pit or small cuplike depression (fovea of the radius) Depressions and Openings allowing blood vessels and nerves to pass Meatus : canal-like passageway (auditory meatus) Sinus : Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane Groove : furrow (bicipital groove) Fissure : narrow, slitlike opening (optic fissure) Foramen : round or oval hole through the bone (optic foramen) Fossa : a wide depression (iliac fossa)
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Movements : Flexion : is a bending movement that decreases joint angle. Movement is along a sagittal plane Extension : is an increase in joint angle; along a sagittal plane Hyperextension : is when the movement of the body part is extended beyond the anatomical
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This note was uploaded on 05/21/2011 for the course BHK 190 taught by Professor Janice during the Spring '11 term at The University of British Columbia.

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190 labmanual - HUMAN KINETICS 190 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY...

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