190_Ws(3)vertibra - LAB 3: THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN BONE AND...

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Unformatted text preview: LAB 3: THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN BONE AND BONY LANDMARK IDENTIFICATION Bony landmarks of a ‘typical’ vertebra: •body •pedicle •vertebral (neural) arch •lamina •transverse process •spinous process •superior articular process •superior articular facet •inferior articular process •inferior articular facet •vertebral foramen Bony Landmarks of the C1 Vertebra (Atlas) •transverse foramen •anterior tubercle •posterior tubercle •superior articular facet •posterior arch •anterior arch •articular facet for odontoid process (aka facet for dens) Bony Landmarks of the C2 Vertebra (Axis) •odontoid process (aka dens) •transverse process •spinous process •transverse foramen •lamina How do the Atlas and Axis articulate? Special Landmarks of the Cervical Vertebrae •transverse foramen •bifid spinous process Special Landmarks of the Thoracic Vertebrae •inferior and superior demi ­facets •costal facet of transverse processes Why do the thoracic vertebrae have these additional articular facets? Sacrum and Coccyx •base of sacrum •sacral ala •sacral canal •sacral promontory •anterior and posterior sacral foramen •median sacral crest •transverse lines •coccyx •superior articular surface what articulates with this surface? 1. Consider how the characteristics of the body, transverse processes, spinous processes, and curvature change as you go down through the different regions of the vertebral column: Feature Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Body Transverse Processes Spinous Processes Curvature # of vertebrae 2. What is the difference between the intervertebral foramen and the vertebral foramen? 3. What are kyphosis, lordosis, and scoliosis? 4. Find/palpate the vertebra prominens. What is this? THE THORAX / RIB CAGE BONE AND BONY LANDMARK IDENTIFICATION Bony Landmarks of the Sternum •manubrium •body of sternum •suprasternal (jugular) notch •clavicular notch •sternal angle •xiphoid process Bony Landmarks of a Rib •costal groove •tubercle RIB ARTICULATIONS Each rib articulates with its corresponding thoracic vertebra at the body (usually demi ­facets) and at the costal facet of the transverse process. Using a skeleton, identify how each rib articulates with A) the vertebral body and B) the transverse process: Rib # articulation between head of rib and body of thoracic vertebra articulation between tubercle of rib and transverse process of thoracic vertebra 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1. How many pairs of ribs are there? 2. How do the ribs articulate to the vertebrae? 3. What is the difference between true ribs and false ribs? 4. Identify the false ribs: 5. What are floating ribs? 6. Identify the floating ribs: 7. Find/palpate the suprasternal notch. MUSCLES OF THE AXIAL SKELETON You should be able to identify these muscles in an illustration, understand their action(s), and describe their relative positions. Erector spinae muscles There are 3 major subgroups that make up the erector spinae muscles: •Spinalis (medial) •Longissimus (intermediate) What is the overall function of this muscle group with: bilateral contraction: unilateral contraction: •Iliocostalis (lateral) Abdominal muscles Function Relative Position (i.e. which is deepest? Which is most superficial?) •Rectus Abdominus •Transversus Abdominus •Internal Oblique •External Oblique 1. What structures underlie the “6 ­pack” seen in people with strong abdominal muscles? 2. How would you strengthen the erector spinae muscles? 3. How would you strengthen the abdominal muscles? 4. How would you specifically target each of the abdominal muscles? ...
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