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190lec1 Bone

190lec1 Bone - HKIN 190 Anatomy Physiology I Physiology...

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Physiology Lecture 1: Bone Structure and Physiology HKIN 190: Anatomy & Physiology I
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Learning Objectives: 1. To understand the function of bone in the body. 2. To understand the classification of bones. 3. To understand the chemical structure of bone. 4. To understand the gross anatomy (gross structure) of a long bone. 5. To understand the histology (microscopic structure) of bone tissue. 6. To understand the flow of blood in bone.
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Tissues Groups of closely associated cells that are similar in structure & perform a common function
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1 2 4 5 6 3 Smooth muscle cell Molecules Atoms Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial tissue Heart Blood vessels Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) Cardiovascular system Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems. Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules.
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Tissue types in the body CMEN 1. C onnective tissue 2. M uscle tissue 3. E pithelial tissue 4. N ervous tissue
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Tissue types in the body – CMEN C onnective Tissue Blood Bone Cartilage Connective Tissue Proper M uscle Smooth Skeletal Cardiac E pithelial Squamous Cuboidal Columnar Pseudostratified Transitional N ervous Tissue
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Functions of tissue types in the body 1. C onnective Blood: transporter of material in body Bone: support body, store Ca++, produce bone marrow Cartilage: supportive and protective to area (eg: menisci, discs) CT proper: ligaments->bone-to-bone; tendons->muscle-to-bone; fat->energy storage, protection, insulation 2. M uscle Skeletal: movement, heat production Smooth: move substances through body Cardiac: pump blood from heart 3. E pithelial Protection as organ liner Secretion as gland 4. N ervous Detect and respond to changes
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Connective Tissue C onnective Tissue Blood Bone Cartilage Connective Tissue Proper •Loose •areolar •adipose •Dense •dense regular •dense irregular •elastic •hyaline •fibrocartilage •elastic
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Connective Tissue Types of CT: Blood Bone Cartilage Hyaline (tip of nose, costal cartilages, articular surfaces of bones) Fibrocartilage (IV disc, menisci, pubic symphyss) Elastic (external ear) Connective Tissue Proper Loose Connective Tissue Areolar (around organs) Adipose (fat in abdomen, under skin, around kidneys, in breasts) Dense Connective Tissue Dense regular (tendons, ligaments) Dense irregular (heart, dermis of skin) Elastic (lungs, arteries)
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Connective Tissue, con’t… Structure : cells not tightly packed, CT mostly “ground substance” (water and fibres) CT made up of cells, water, fibers: Cells are called fibroblasts (blast = lays down ground substance) Fibers: 3 Types: Collagen – tough; provides high tensile strength Elastic – long, thin fibers that allow for stretch
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