190lec12brain2

190lec12brain2 - HKIN 190: Anatomy and Physiology I 12 The...

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12 – The Brain II - The diencephalon, medulla, pons, midbrain and cerebellum - The cranial nerves - The autonomic nervous system HKIN 190: Anatomy and Physiology I
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Tissue types in the body CMEN C onnective Tissue Blood Bone Cartilage Connective Tissue Proper M uscle Smooth Skeletal Cardiac E pithelial Squamous Cuboidal Columnar Pseudostratified Transitional N ervous
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Learning Objectives 1. To understand the function of the: Diencephalon (particularly the thalamus) Medulla Pons Midbrain Cerebellum 2. To understand the function of the cranial nerves. 3. To understand the function of the autonomic nervous system.
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1. Central nervous system (CNS) brain & spinal cord 2. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) all nerve tissue outside of brain & spinal cord Organization of the nervous system by location
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Alpha versus gamma motor neuron More on the ‘stretch reflex’…
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Spinal Reflexes automatic, stereotyped motor response to a sensory stimulus whose circuitry is entirely within spinal cord 1. sensory neuron 2. interneuron (integration) 3. motor neuron reflex arc consists of these 3 components plus the sensory receptor and effector
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Monosynaptic: Stretch Reflex (aka myotatic reflex) stimulus : muscle stretch / lengthening receptor : muscle spindles effect : muscle contraction maintains length afferent neuron = Ia neuron (large, myelinated) interneuon = NONE efferent neuron = alpha-motoneuron to same muscle that was stimulated
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To understand the function of the: Thalamus (part of the diencephalon) Medulla Pons Midbrain Cerebellum Learning Objective 1
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Recall: Organization of the brain
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Brainstem Recall: Organization of the brain
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Evolution of the nervous system Vertebrates = forebrain
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diencephalon brainstem cerebrum cerebellum spinal cord
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Diencephalon Includes the : Thalamus Hypothalamus Epithalamus (ie: third ventricle area)
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Hypothalamus • coordinating centre of endocrine and autonomic nervous system – e.g. heart rate, digestion, blood pressure •pituitary gland extends from hypothalamus: produces hormones or send signals to pituitary gland to stimulate or inhibit secretion of hormones •contains thirst and hunger centres •monitors temperature of body and controls responses to either increase body heat (e.g. shivering) or decrease body heat (e.g. sweating) Physiologically, there are very few activities in the body NOT influenced by the hypothalamus…
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Thalamus
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l Grand Central Station z - Relay station of all main sensory information (except olfactory) - flow of sensory information: spinal cord -> thalamus -> cerebrum Example : PCML and lateral corticospinal pathways Thalamus
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Posterior column-medial lemniscus (PCML) pathway X X X •Stereogenesis •2-point discrimination •Vibration •proprioception medial lemniscus Posterior white columns
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X X X
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190lec12brain2 - HKIN 190: Anatomy and Physiology I 12 The...

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