lab2Answers - LAB 2: THE SKULL The human skull,...

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Unformatted text preview: LAB 2: THE SKULL The human skull, consisting of 8 cranial and 14 facial bones, contains several cavities that house the brain and sensory organs. Each bone of the skull articulates with the adjacent bones and has diagnostic and functional processes, surface features and foramina. Work through the following bony structures and identify the major cranial and facial bones and describe their structural characteristics. BONE AND BONY LANDMARK IDENTIFICATION The Cranial Bones: •Frontal Bone •Parietal Bone •Occipital Bone •Temporal Bone •Ethmoid Bone •Sphenoid Bone •Inferior Nasal Conchae* •Maxillae Bones •Nasal Bone •Lacrimal Bone •Palatine Bone •Vomer •Zygomatic Bone •Mandible supra ­orbital ridge / margin mastoid process styloid process zygomatic process middle nasal conchae superior nasal conchae external occipital protuberance occipital condyles sella turcica The Facial Bones: temporal process *The inferior nasal concha is a separate bone from the ethmoid, which contains both the superior and middle nasal conchae. Foramina: The foramina, or holes, in the skull permit the passage of the structures of the central nervous system, including the cranial nerves and the brainstem. The following lists some of these foramen, which you should be able to identify in a diagram or the models of the skull. What passes through? •Foramen magnum _________________________________________________________ •Optic foramen _________________________________________________________ •Olfactory foramina _________________________________________________________ Tania Lam 77-15-1 3:18 PM Comment: brainstem Tania Lam 77-15-1 3:18 PM Comment: optic nerve Tania Lam 77-15-1 3:18 PM Comment: olfactory nerve Tania Lam 09-8-12 11:11 AM 1. Which bone articulates with the most other bones in the skull? 2. What are the 3 nasal conchae for? 3. Where is the hyoid bone? What is its function? 4. Which bones do these sutures join? o sagittal suture Comment: sphenoid Tania Lam 09-8-12 11:11 AM Comment: filter air before entering lungs; superior nasal conchae involved in smell Tania Lam 09-8-12 11:11 AM Comment: anterior neck; supports tongue, neck, and pharynx muscles Tania Lam 09-8-12 11:12 AM o coronal suture Comment: 2 parietal bones o squamous suture Comment: Frontal bone and 2 parietal bones Tania Lam 09-8-12 11:12 AM Tania Lam 09-8-12 11:12 AM o lambdoid suture 5. What is typically damaged in a broken nose? Comment: Temporal and parietal 6. What forms the zygomatic arch? Comment: Parietal and occipital 7. Identify and palpate the following surface landmarks: o Mastoid processes o External occipital protuberance o Nasal bone – can you feel the point at which it turns from bone into cartilage? o Zygomatic bones Tania Lam 09-8-12 11:13 AM Tania Lam 09-8-12 11:13 AM Comment: Nasal cartilage Tania Lam 09-8-12 11:13 AM Comment: temporal process of zygomatic bone + zygomatic process of temporal bone Tania Lam 77-15-1 3:18 PM Comment: Underneath/behind ear lobe o Supraorbital ridge/margin o Temporomandibular joint SELECT MUSCLES OF THE HEAD AND NECK Tania Lam 77-15-1 3:18 PM Comment: Bump at back of head Tania Lam 77-15-1 3:18 PM Comment: Cheek bone Tania Lam 77-15-1 3:18 PM Action Comment: Under eyebrows • Orbicularis oculi Comment: Closes eye •Orbicularis oris Comment: Closes and protrudes lips (kissing) •Zygomaticus Comment: smiling •Levator palpebrae superioris Comment: Elevates upper eyelid (opens eye) •Occipitofrontalis •Temporalis Comment: Frontal belly: draws scalp anteriorly, raises eyebrows, wrinkles forehead; Occipital belly: draws scalp posteriorly •Buccinator •Masseter •Platysma Tania Lam 09-9-2 1:46 PM Tania Lam 09-9-2 1:47 PM Tania Lam 09-9-2 1:47 PM Tania Lam 09-9-2 1:47 PM Tania Lam 09-9-2 1:47 PM Tania Lam 09-9-2 1:47 PM Comment: Elevates and retracts mandible Tania Lam 09-9-2 1:47 PM Comment: Compresses cheek (whistling) Tania Lam 09-9-2 1:47 PM Comment: Elevate mandible (closes mouth) Tania Lam 09-9-2 1:48 PM Comment: depression of mandible (contributes to pouting) •Sternocleidomastoid •Genioglossus Muscles Controlling the Eyeball •Superior rectus •Inferior rectus •Medial rectus •Lateral rectus •Superior Oblique •Inferior Oblique Tania Lam 09-9-2 1:48 PM Comment: forward flexion of neck (bilateral contraction) Tania Lam 09-9-2 1:48 PM Comment: Depress and protract tongue Tania Lam 09-9-2 1:48 PM Comment: Moves eyeball superiorly Tania Lam 09-9-2 1:48 PM Comment: Moves eyeball inferiorly Tania Lam 09-9-2 1:48 PM Comment: Adducts eyeball Tania Lam 09-9-2 1:48 PM Comment: Abducts eyeball Tania Lam 09-9-2 1:49 PM Comment: rotates eyeball down and laterally Tania Lam 09-9-2 1:49 PM Comment: rotates eyeball up and laterally ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/21/2011 for the course BHK 190 taught by Professor Janice during the Spring '11 term at The University of British Columbia.

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