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Unformatted text preview: LAB 3: THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN BONE AND BONY LANDMARK IDENTIFICATION Bony landmarks of a ‘typical’ vertebra: •body •pedicle •vertebral (neural) arch •lamina •transverse process •spinous process •superior articular process •superior articular facet •inferior articular process •inferior articular facet •vertebral foramen Bony Landmarks of the C1 Vertebra (Atlas) •transverse foramen •anterior tubercle •posterior tubercle •superior articular facet •posterior arch •anterior arch •articular facet for odontoid process (aka facet for dens) Bony Landmarks of the C2 Vertebra (Axis) •odontoid process (aka dens) •transverse process •spinous process •transverse foramen •lamina How do the Atlas and Axis articulate? Special Landmarks of the Cervical Vertebrae •transverse foramen •bifid spinous process Special Landmarks of the Thoracic Vertebrae •inferior and superior demi ­facets •costal facet of transverse processes Why do the thoracic vertebrae have these additional articular facets? Sacrum and Coccyx •base of sacrum •sacral ala •sacral canal •sacral promontory •anterior and posterior sacral foramen •median sacral crest •transverse lines •coccyx •superior articular surface what articulates with this surface? Tania Lam 78-5-1 3:52 PM Comment: inferior articular facet of L5 1. Consider how the characteristics of the body, transverse processes, spinous processes, and curvature change as you go down through the different regions of the vertebral column: Feature Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Body small, compared to vertebral foramen medium sized large ** has costal facets Transverse hole in transverse process contains facets for ribs Processes slender Spinous Processes sharp, downward pointing sharp, downward pointing short, blunt Curvature concave (relative to ant) convex concave # of vertebrae 7 12 5 2. What is the difference between the intervertebral foramen and the vertebral foramen? 4. Find/palpate the vertebra prominens. What is this? Tania Lam 09-9-2 2:02 PM Comment: spinous process of C7 THE THORAX / RIB CAGE BONE AND BONY LANDMARK IDENTIFICATION Bony Landmarks of the Sternum •manubrium •body of sternum •suprasternal (jugular) notch •clavicular notch •sternal angle •xiphoid process Bony Landmarks of a Rib •costal groove Tania Lam 78-5-1 4:12 PM Comment: intervertebral foramen formed by adjacent vertebrae (can see the hole from the lateral sides, for exiting spinal nerves); vertebral foramen is hole formed between the vertebral body and vertebral arch (stacked up together will form the vertebral canal – for the spinal cord). 3. What are kyphosis, lordosis, and scoliosis? •tubercle RIB ARTICULATIONS Each rib articulates with its corresponding thoracic vertebra at the body (usually demi ­facets) and at the costal facet of the transverse process. Using a skeleton, identify how each rib articulates with A) the vertebral body and B) the transverse process: Rib # articulation between head of rib and body of thoracic vertebra articulation between tubercle of rib and transverse process of thoracic vertebra 1 T1 T1 2 inferior demi ­facet of T1 + superior demi ­facet of T2 T2 3 inferior demi ­facet of T2 + superior demi ­facet of T3 T3 4 inferior demi ­facet of T3 + superior demi ­facet of T4 T4 5 inferior demi ­facet of T4 + superior demi ­facet of T5 T5 6 inferior demi ­facet of T5 + superior demi ­facet of T6 T6 7 inferior demi ­facet of T6 + superior demi ­facet of T7 T7 8 inferior demi ­facet of T7 + superior demi ­facet of T8 T8 9 inferior demi ­facet of T8 + superior demi ­facet of T9 T9 10 inferior demi ­facet of T9 + superior demi ­facet of T10; T11 or only on T10 T12 T10 11 12 none none 1. How many pairs of ribs are there? 2. How do the ribs articulate to the vertebrae? 3. What is the difference between true ribs and false ribs? 4. Identify the false ribs: 5. What are floating ribs? 6. Identify the floating ribs: 7. Find/palpate the suprasternal notch. Tania Lam 78-5-1 4:50 PM Comment: 12 Tania Lam 78-5-1 4:50 PM Comment: Head of rib articulates with demi ­ facets; tubercle articulates with transverse process. Tania Lam 78-5-1 4:50 PM Comment: False ribs do not attach directly to sternum – they fuse together with cartilage before reaching the sternum. Tania Lam 78-5-1 4:50 PM Comment: 1.Ribs 8 ­12 Tania Lam 78-5-1 4:50 PM Comment: Floating ribs have no connection to the sternum. Tania Lam 78-5-1 4:50 PM Comment: Ribs 11 ­12 MUSCLES OF THE AXIAL SKELETON You should be able to identify these muscles in an illustration, understand their action(s), and describe their relative positions. Erector spinae muscles There are 3 major subgroups that make up the erector spinae muscles: •Spinalis (medial) •Longissimus (intermediate) What is the overall function of this muscle group with: bilateral contraction: unilateral contraction: •Iliocostalis (lateral) Tania Lam 11-2-13 8:15 PM Comment: extension of the vertebral column Tania Lam 78-5-1 4:58 PM Comment: lateral flexion (bending side ­to ­side) Abdominal muscles Function Relative Position (i.e. which is deepest? Which is most superficial?) •Rectus Abdominus Flexes vertebral column, abdominal compression Spans all 3 layers Abdominal compression Deepest lateral flexion and rotation Intermediate lateral flexion and rotation Most superficial •Transversus Abdominus •Internal Oblique •External Oblique 1. What structures underlie the “6 ­pack” seen in people with strong abdominal muscles? Tania Lam 78-5-1 5:00 PM 2. How would you strengthen the erector spinae muscles? Comment: linea alba and aponeuroses separating rectus abdominis 3. How would you strengthen the abdominal muscles? 4. How would you specifically target each of the abdominal muscles? Tania Lam 11-2-13 8:16 PM Comment: back extensions Tania Lam 11-2-13 8:16 PM Comment: mini sit ­ups Tania Lam 11-2-13 8:16 PM Comment: mini sit ­ups, bringing one shoulder towards contralateral knee ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/21/2011 for the course BHK 190 taught by Professor Janice during the Spring '11 term at UBC.

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