Ch17 - Immunization Two Artificial Methods of Immunity...

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Immunization Two Artificial Methods of Immunity Active immunization – administration of a vaccine so that the patient actively mounts a protective immune response Passive immunization – individual acquires immunity through the transfer of antibodies formed by an immune individual or animal
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Immunization Brief History of Immunization – The Chinese noticed that children who recovered from smallpox did not contract the disease again – They infected young children with material from a smallpox scab to induce immunity in these children, a process known as variolation – The use of variolation spread to England and America but was stopped due to risk of death
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Immunization Brief History of Immunization – 1796 – Edward Jenner discovered process of vaccination by inoculating material from a person infected with cowpox – 1879 – Louis Pasteur developed a vaccine against Pasteurella multocida – Practice of transferring antibodies was developed when it was discovered vaccines protected through the action of antibodies
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Immunization [INSERT FIGURE 17.1]
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Immunization Brief History of Immunization – Socioeconomic and political problems prevent many developing nations from receiving vaccines – Effective vaccines unable to be developed for some pathogens – Vaccine-associated risks discourage investment in developing new vaccines
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Immunization Active Immunization – Vaccine types • Attenuated (live) vaccines – Use pathogens that have reduced virulence – Can result in mild infections but no serious disease – Contain active microbes that stimulate a strong immune response due to the large number of antigen molecules – Can provide contact immunity through vaccinated individuals infecting those around them – Can be hazardous because modified microbes may retain enough residual virulence to cause disease
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Immunization Active Immunization – Vaccine types • Inactivated (killed) vaccines Whole agent vaccines – produced with deactivated but whole microbes Subunit vaccines – produced with antigenic fragments of microbes » Both types are safer than live vaccines because they cannot replicate or mutate to a virulent form – Antigenically weak because the microbes don’t reproduce and
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Ch17 - Immunization Two Artificial Methods of Immunity...

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