Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Microbial Diseases of the Skin and...

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Chapter 19 Microbial Diseases of the Skin and Wounds
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Structure of the Skin Functions of the skin Prevents excessive water loss Important to temperature regulation Involved in sensory phenomena Barrier against microbial invaders Composed of two main layers Dermis Epidermis
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Structure of the Skin [INSERT FIGURE 19.1]
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Structure of the Skin Wounds Trauma to any tissue of the body From cuts and scrapes to surgery, burns, bites, etc Allow microbes to infect the deeper tissues of the body In most cases other body defenses eliminate the infection Can result in severe or fatal diseases
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Normal Microbiota of the Skin Skin microbiota are normally harmless microbes able to survive on the skin Cannot be completely removed through cleansing Made up of various microbes The yeast, Malassezia The bacteria, Staphlycococcus , Micrococcus , and the diphtheroids; Most important are S. epidermidis and S. aureus May produce disease, particularly if they penetrate epidermis or if immune system is suppressed
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Bacterial Diseases of the Skin and Wounds Folliculitis Signs and symptoms Infection of the hair follicle Often called a pimple Called a sty when it occurs at the eyelid base Spread of the infection into surrounding tissues can produce furuncles Carbuncles occur when multiple furuncles grow together
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Bacterial Diseases of the Skin and Wounds Folliculitis Pathogen and virulence factors Most commonly caused by Staphylococcus Bacteria that are facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive cocci, arranged in clusters Salt tolerant Tolerant of desiccation Two species commonly found on the skin Staphylococcus epidermidis Staphylococcus aureus
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Bacterial Diseases of the Skin and Wounds [INSERT FIGURE 19.2]
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Bacterial Diseases of the Skin and Wounds [INSERT TABLE 19.1]
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Bacterial Diseases of the Skin and Wounds Folliculitis Diagnosis Detection of Gram-positive bacteria in grapelike arrangements isolated from pus, blood, or other fluids Treatment Dicloxacillin (semi-synthetic form of penicillin) is the drug of choice for staphylococcal infections Vancomycin used to treat resistant strains Prevention Hand antisepsis Also, proper cleansing of wounds and surgical openings, aseptic use of catheters or indwelling needles, and appropriate use of antiseptics
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Chapter 19 - Chapter 19 Microbial Diseases of the Skin and...

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